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Homa: Tantric Fire Ritual  

Richard K. Payne

The homa is a votive offering involving the construction of a fire in a hearth-altar, and the immolation of offerings in the fire. The altar is homologized with a mandala, and as with ... More

Homeric Religion: The Gods and the Poet  

Elizabeth Minchin

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The epics that are associated with Homer’s name, the Iliad and the Odyssey, emerge from a long tradition of oral song that extends back into the Late Bronze Age. The poems themselves, ... More

Hsing Yun  

Kendall Marchman

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Subject:
Buddhism
Hsing Yun 星雲 (1927–) is the charismatic founder of Fo Guang Shan 佛光山 (Buddha’s Light Mountain), one of the largest Buddhist organizations to emerge out of modern Taiwan. Following the ... More

The Idea of Black Religion  

Jamil W. Drake

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
It is impossible to provide a conclusive definition of the idea of black religion; however, certain themes, tropes, and characteristics are typically associated with the “black” in black ... More

Ideas of the Afterlife in American Religion  

Kathryn Gin Lum

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Heaven and hell have survived in the United States beyond scientific critiques of the supernatural. For many Americans, the promise of eternal rewards and the threat of everlasting ... More

Imperialism, Mission, and Global Power Relations in East Asian Religions in the United States  

Connie A. Shemo

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of East Asian religions in the United States is inextricably intertwined with the broader history of United States–East Asian relations, and specifically with U.S. imperialism. ... More

The Incarnation in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Anne Käfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s understanding of the Incarnation concerns various subject areas in his theology, among them his understanding of scripture, his teaching on the sacraments in particular, as well ... More

The Influence of Renaissance Humanism and Skepticism on Martin Luther  

William J. Wright

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
When Martin Luther began his academic studies at Erfurt, Renaissance humanism and skepticism had become well entrenched in the German academic world. He also found them at Wittenberg. ... More

Interracialism and American Christianity  

Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In its broadest sense, interracialism in American Christianity refers to constructive social interactions and collaboration across racial and ethnic boundaries—existential engagement ... More

Islam and the Middle East in the American Imagination  

Brooke Sherrard

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Americans have utilized Islam as a rhetorical device for articulating various understandings of American identity from the time of the earliest Anglo-American settlers. In every period, ... More

Islam, Art, and Depictions of Prophets  

Rachel Milstein

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The history of figurative painting in Islamic lands, although limited to certain regions and periods, includes a meaningful variety of saintly iconographies, mostly as book illustrations. ... More

Islamic Economic Principles  

Rodney Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Justice in commercial transactions is central to Islamic economic teaching, in particular the notion that remuneration should be fair, with distribution viewed as a moral issue. Risks are ... More

Islamic Theological Views on Darwinian Evolution  

Nidhal Guessoum

Online publication date:
May 2016
The various positions that Muslim scholars have adopted vis-à-vis Darwin’s theory of evolution since its inception in 1859 are here reviewed with an eye on the theological arguments that ... More

Islam in Mughal India  

Michael H. Fisher

The history of the Mughal Empire (1526–1858) reveals much of the diversity among Muslims and the complexity of Islam as variously envisioned and as practiced in India. The empire’s ruling ... More

Islam in Southeast Asia  

Khairudin Aljunied

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Islam has maintained its presence in Southeast Asia for more than a millennium, dating back to as early as the 7th century. By the 21st century, the estimated total of Muslims surpassed ... More

Islamophobia  

Todd Green

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
“Islamophobia” is a modern word for a prejudice that dates back to the Middle Ages and that permeates Western societies in the 21st century. It refers to the fear of and hostility toward ... More

Japanese Buddhisms in Diaspora  

Elisabetta Porcu

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Buddhism has been a missionary religion from its beginning. Japan was among the countries where this “foreign” religion arrived and was assimilated, adapted, and reshaped into new forms ... More

Japanese Suicide  

Paul S. Atkins

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Please check back later for the full article. Suicide ... More

Jātaka  

Naomi Appleton

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Buddhism
A jātaka story narrates an episode in a past life of the Buddha. Such tales are found in a variety of Buddhist texts, the largest and best known of which is the Jātakatthavaṇṇanā, a ... More

Jebtsundamba Khutugtus of Mongolia  

Agata Bareja-Starzyńska

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Buddhist reincarnations, stemming from the Tibetan term rJe btsun dam pa (“Holy Precious Master”) in the 17th century after fourteen previous rebirths in India and Tibet, appeared in ... More

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