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Imperialism, Mission, and Global Power Relations in East Asian Religions in the United States  

Connie A. Shemo

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of East Asian religions in the United States is inextricably intertwined with the broader history of United States–East Asian relations, and specifically with U.S. imperialism. ... More

The Incarnation in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Anne Käfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s understanding of the Incarnation concerns various subject areas in his theology, among them his understanding of scripture, his teaching on the sacraments in particular, as well ... More

The Influence of Renaissance Humanism and Skepticism on Martin Luther  

William J. Wright

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
When Martin Luther began his academic studies at Erfurt, Renaissance humanism and skepticism had become well entrenched in the German academic world. He also found them at Wittenberg. ... More

Interracialism and American Christianity  

Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In its broadest sense, interracialism in American Christianity refers to constructive social interactions and collaboration across racial and ethnic boundaries—existential engagement ... More

Islam and the Middle East in the American Imagination  

Brooke Sherrard

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Americans have utilized Islam as a rhetorical device for articulating various understandings of American identity from the time of the earliest Anglo-American settlers. In every period, ... More

Islam, Art, and Depictions of Prophets  

Rachel Milstein

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The history of figurative painting in Islamic lands, although limited to certain regions and periods, includes a meaningful variety of saintly iconographies, mostly as book illustrations. ... More

Islamic Theological Views on Darwinian Evolution  

Nidhal Guessoum

Online publication date:
May 2016
The various positions that Muslim scholars have adopted vis-à-vis Darwin’s theory of evolution since its inception in 1859 are here reviewed with an eye on the theological arguments that ... More

Islam in Mughal India  

Michael H. Fisher

The history of the Mughal Empire (1526–1858) reveals much of the diversity among Muslims and the complexity of Islam as variously envisioned and as practiced in India. The empire’s ruling ... More

Islamophobia  

Todd Green

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
“Islamophobia” is a modern word for a prejudice that dates back to the Middle Ages and that permeates Western societies in the 21st century. It refers to the fear of and hostility toward ... More

Japanese Buddhisms in Diaspora  

Elisabetta Porcu

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Buddhism has been a missionary religion from its beginning. Japan was among the countries where this “foreign” religion arrived and was assimilated, adapted, and reshaped into new forms ... More

Japanese Suicide  

Paul S. Atkins

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Please check back later for the full article. Suicide ... More

Jātaka  

Naomi Appleton

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Buddhism
A jātaka story narrates an episode in a past life of the Buddha. Such tales are found in a variety of Buddhist texts, the largest and best known of which is the Jātakatthavaṇṇanā, a ... More

Jebtsundamba Khutugtus of Mongolia  

Agata Bareja-Starzyńska

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Buddhist reincarnations, stemming from the Tibetan term rJe btsun dam pa (“Holy Precious Master”) in the 17th century after fourteen previous rebirths in India and Tibet, appeared in ... More

Jesus Christ in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Johannes Zachhuber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s theology is strongly Christocentric, but Christology is rarely the central focus of his writings. In some of his most considered summaries of his own faith, he presents ... More

Jewish Liturgy  

Ruth Langer

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jewish liturgy is a complex phenomenon, manifesting change over time and place as well as some significant diversity today. Today’s prayers emerged from the rituals of the rabbis of the ... More

Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought and History  

Asma Afsaruddin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In both popular and scholarly literature, jihad is primarily assumed to be a monovalent concept referring to “military/armed combat,” and martyrdom (shahada) is inevitably understood to be ... More

Johannes von Staupitz’s Influence on Martin Luther  

Franz Posset

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The impact of Johannes von Staupitz (c. 1468–1524) on Martin Luther can hardly be overestimated. Staupitz was elected vicar general of the reformed Augustinian Order in 1503. Between 1504 ... More

Judaism and Visual Art  

Melissa Raphael

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Until the late 20th century, it was widely assumed that visual art could be of only negligible significance to a Jewish tradition that had been principally mediated through written texts. ... More

The Judeo-Christian and Abrahamic Traditions in America  

K. Healan Gaston

The terms “Judeo-Christian” and “Abrahamic” are collective religious descriptors that identify points of theological, historical, and ethical commonality between the world’s largest ... More

Law in Doctrine and Life According to Martin Luther  

Risto Saarinen and Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The law both is and functions in Martin Luther’s theology. To the extent that it simply is, the law is wholly good, just, and pure. It reveals God’s benevolent providence for creation by ... More

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