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Contemporary Pagan, Wiccan, and Native Faith Movements  

Chas S. Clifton

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Paganism is based largely in an Enlightenment-era rejection of Christianity and Romantic-era ideas of the individual experience, emotion, and creativity, combined with a search for true ... More

Cosmic War  

Mark Juergensmeyer

Online publication date:
May 2016
A “cosmic war” is an imagined battle between metaphysical forces—good and evil, right and wrong, order and chaos—that lies behind many cases of religion-related violence in the ... More

The Cosmological Vision of Martin Luther  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther was not an original contributor to the study of cosmology, and if one were to judge only by his explicit remarks on the matter, it would seem to have been of little interest ... More

Creation and Contingency  

Dirk Evers

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Contingency is a term that occurs in philosophical discourse as well as in theology in a number of contexts and with a number of meanings. In its modern sense the English term contingency ... More

Culture, Entertainment, and Religion in America  

Randall J. Stephens

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Throughout American history, religion and entertainment have influenced each other and have intersected in fascinating ways. Native American rituals and games entertained and inspired. ... More

Cybernetics and Religion  

Noreen Herzfeld

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cybernetics is the study of systems of control and communication. While often used to refer to control systems in or by machines, such as computers, cybernetic theory can be applied to ... More

Cyberspace and Religion in America  

Douglas E. Cowan

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Invented in 1989 and popularly accessible since the mid-1990s, the World Wide Web has always hosted a wide variety of religious content, ranging from early text-based discussion forums to ... More

The Debate between Martin Luther and Erasmus  

Robert Kolb

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther and Desiderius Erasmus played somewhat significant roles in each other’s lives. Their early relationship is not free from a sense of the serious differences that divided ... More

Denomination in American Public Life  

Russell E. Richey

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
A voluntary religious community and ecclesial creation of modernity, the denomination emerged alongside of and along with the political party, the free press, and free enterprise. By 1702 ... More

Desire, Love, and Romance in the Hebrew Bible  

J. Cheryl Exum

In the Hebrew Bible human sexual desire is, for the most part, constructed as male and as dangerous. In the patriarchal economy of ancient Israel, in which women were subordinated to men ... More

The Development of the “Apostolic Tradition” in Early Christian Worship  

Maxwell E. Johnson

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Contrary to the assumptions often held by previous scholars, contemporary liturgical scholarship is coming increasingly to realize and emphasize that Christian worship was diverse even in ... More

The Distinction between Law and Gospel in Martin Luther’s Theological Development  

Charles P. Arand

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther’s insistence on the proper distinction between law and gospel in theology marks one of his most important contributions to the Reformation movement and subsequent Protestant ... More

Dunhuang Art  

Michelle C. Wang

The oasis city of Dunhuang lies at the eastern end of the southern Silk Routes, in Gansu Province in northwestern China. In the 2nd century BCE, Dunhuang was established by the Chinese Han ... More

Dzogchen  

Sam van Schaik

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Dzogchen, often translated as “the great perfection,” is a tradition of meditation practice and poetic literary expression in Tibetan Buddhism. Though its origins lie in Indic Buddhism, ... More

Early Christian Worship  

Paul F. Bradshaw

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
The forms of Christian worship changed and developed considerably during the first four centuries of its existence, not least from a distinctive local or regional diversity to an ... More

Ecology and Religious Environmentalism in the United States  

Rebecca Kneale Gould and Laurel Kearns

Online publication date:
May 2018
Any discussion of ecology, environment, and religion in America rightly begins with the American landscape itself. It also properly begins with a reflection on the terms and metaphors that ... More

Ecology and Spirituality  

Leslie E. Sponsel

Online publication date:
May 2019
Interest in the degradation of the “natural” environment, and the scientific, academic, and activist responses including ecology have developed in Western societies largely since the ... More

Ecology in Islam  

Rosemary Hancock

Online publication date:
May 2019
Starting in the late 1960s, a small number of Muslim scholars turned their attention to how the Islamic scriptures and intellectual tradition might help Muslims understand and respond to ... More

Egypt in the Old Testament  

Christopher Hays

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The relationship between Egypt and ancient Israel and Judah was far more complex than is often recognized. Egypt figures prominently in their national myths of origin as a way station for ... More

Emotion in American Religions  

John Corrigan

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Emotion is an important part of religions in America. There is great diversity among emotional styles. Some groups are highly emotional, others relatively low in emotional expression, and ... More

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