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Liberation Theologies in America  

Craig L. Nessan

Liberation theologies employ action-reflection (praxis-oriented) methodologies in response to particular forms of oppression, normally consisting of five elements: 1) identification with ... More

Liturgical Theology  

Joris Geldhof

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Liturgical theology studies the meaning of Christian worship. Although it is a relatively recent approach, it is solidly anchored in the Christian tradition. Its present shape, fame, and ... More

Liturgical Vestments, Vessels, and Objects in Christian Worship  

Joanne M. Pierce

Online publication date:
May 2018
Any history of Christian liturgy must address the origins and development of the various material elements that are used during these celebrations. These have their own specific history, ... More

Liturgy and Music at Hagia Sophia  

Bissera V. Pentcheva

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Hagia Sophia, the former Orthodox Christian cathedral of Constantinople, is the single most important monument that survives from Byzantium. Its daring architecture of cascading dome and ... More

Lived Ancient Religions  

Jörg Rüpke

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
“Lived ancient religion” offers a new perspective on ancient religion. It shares the priority on ritual of many studies from the late 19th century onward but reconstructs ancient religion ... More

Martin Luther and Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism  

Christopher Ocker

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The uncomfortable question of Martin Luther’s place in the development of modern anti-Semitism is raised by Luther’s status as a national cultural icon after German unification (1871) and ... More

Luther, Lutheranism, and Post-Christianity  

Daphne Hampson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
It would not be possible to say that the Lutheran tradition has led to the post-Christian world that is Europe today, the causes of which must be multifarious. Nevertheless, it is thinkers ... More

Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, and Their Wittenberg Colleagues  

Timothy J. Wengert

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The German Reformation, sparked by the publication of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses in 1517, unfolded parallel to another intellectual phenomenon then sweeping centers of higher education ... More

Martin Luther on Marriage and the Family  

Merry Wiesner-Hanks

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Marriage was at the heart of Martin Luther’s break with Rome and the Reformation that followed. He preached sermons praising marriage beginning in 1519 and several years later wrote his ... More

Martin Luther on the Vocations of the Christian  

Robert Benne

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
A teaching of Martin Luther that has had great historical effect is his teaching on vocation. Protesting the Roman Catholic arrangement in which the clergy had callings of higher religious ... More

The Luther Renaissance  

Heinrich Assel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Luther Renaissance is the most important international network for Luther research, as well as an ecclesial, ecumenical and cultural reform movement between 1900 and 1960 in Germany, ... More


Paul B. Donnelly

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Along with Yogācāra, Madhyamaka (Middle Way) is one of the two foundational doctrinal systems of Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism, which flourished from the 3rd century ce to the final ... More

Magic and the Occult in Martin Luther’s World  

Kathryn A. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the 15th- and early-16th-century German-speaking lands, reports circulated of spirits shaking the walls of houses, comets presaging imminent doom, and dwarves warning miners to leave ... More

Mahāmudrā in India and Tibet  

Roger R. Jackson

Mahāmudrā, “the Great Seal,” is a Sanskrit term (Tibetan: phyag rgya chen po) that connotes a wide range of concepts and practices in Indian Mahāyāna and, especially, Tibetan ... More

Mainline of the Protestant Worship in Latin America  

Wilhelm Wachholz

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The Latin American Christian worship service celebrated in most of Latin America until the beginning of the 19th century was Catholic, particularly the one that was prior to the Catholic ... More


Laura Harrington

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Mañjuśrī (“Gentle Glory”) is one of the oldest and most significant bodhisattvas of the Indian Mahāyāna Buddhist pantheon. Mañjuśrī is the personification of the Mahāyāna notion of prajñā ... More

Maritime Buddhism  

Andrea Acri

The spread of Buddhism across Asia has been studied mainly from a perspective focusing on the transmission through the overland routes popularly known as “Silk Roads” and emphasizing ... More

Martin Luther’s Occasional Writings: Table Talk, Letters, and Prefaces  

Wolf-Friedrich Schäufele

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Besides the great treatises and the German Bible, there are a number of smaller texts by Martin Luther that can be characterized as occasional writings. They can be roughly divided into ... More

Martin Luther and Christian Hebraism  

Stephen G. Burnett

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Christian Hebraism was a facet of Renaissance humanism. Biblical scholars, theologians, lawyers, physicians, astronomers, philosophers, and teachers in Latin schools sought to learn Hebrew ... More

Martin Luther and Economic Life  

Philipp Robinson Rössner

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther is often considered, by historians, theologians, and economists alike, to have had no, primitive, or antiquated knowledge on economic matters. New research has suggested the ... More