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African American Islam  

Herbert Berg

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The first Muslims arrived in the American colonies and later in the United States as African slaves. Although a few and noteworthy Muslim American slaves left written records of their ... More

The Alawis  

Stephan Procházka

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The ʿAlawis are adherents of an Islamic sect, the origin of which can be traced back to 9th-century Iraq. They are an offshoot of early Shiah Islam with ancient Iranian, Christian, and ... More

The Alevis  

Gisela Procházka-Eisl

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The Alevis are a religious community on the periphery of Shia Islam. The name “Alevi” means “Adherents of ʿAli,” alluding to Muhammad’s son-in-law and cousin ʿAli ibn Abi Talib, who enjoys ... More

The Black Atlantic and the African Diaspora  

Walter C. Rucker

The Black Atlantic and the African Diaspora refer to overlapping geographic and historical concepts each representing a complex series of dispersals, connections and reconnections, ... More

The Caliphate  

Carool Kersten

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The caliphate as an institution for governing the Muslim community can be traced back to the time immediately after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 ce. With its humble origins in ... More

Constitutions and Islamic Law  

Christie S. Warren

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Constitution of Madinah, written by the Prophet after his flight from Mecca and arrival in Madinah (622 ce/1 ah), is considered by many to be the first written constitution. ... More

Ecology in Islam  

Rosemary Hancock

Online publication date:
May 2019
Starting in the late 1960s, a small number of Muslim scholars turned their attention to how the Islamic scriptures and intellectual tradition might help Muslims understand and respond to ... More

The Evolution of Modern Jihadism  

Nelly Lahoud

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Political Islam has generated two ideological strands that use religious ideology to advance their goals, namely, Islamism and jihadism. On the one hand, Islamists have formulated a ... More

Governance in Classical Islamic Thought  

Ovamir Anjum

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Governance in Islamic history has taken many different forms. The formative period saw most innovative deployment of the Arab tribal norms under the guidance of Islamic norms and the ... More

Islam and the Middle East in the American Imagination  

Brooke Sherrard

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Americans have utilized Islam as a rhetorical device for articulating various understandings of American identity from the time of the earliest Anglo-American settlers. In every period, ... More

Islam, Art, and Depictions of Prophets  

Rachel Milstein

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The history of figurative painting in Islamic lands, although limited to certain regions and periods, includes a meaningful variety of saintly iconographies, mostly as book illustrations. ... More

Islam in Mughal India  

Michael H. Fisher

The history of the Mughal Empire (1526–1858) reveals much of the diversity among Muslims and the complexity of Islam as variously envisioned and as practiced in India. The empire’s ruling ... More

Islamophobia  

Todd Green

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
“Islamophobia” is a modern word for a prejudice that dates back to the Middle Ages and that permeates Western societies in the 21st century. It refers to the fear of and hostility toward ... More

Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought and History  

Asma Afsaruddin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In both popular and scholarly literature, jihad is primarily assumed to be a monovalent concept referring to “military/armed combat,” and martyrdom (shahada) is inevitably understood to be ... More

The Judeo-Christian and Abrahamic Traditions in America  

K. Healan Gaston

The terms “Judeo-Christian” and “Abrahamic” are collective religious descriptors that identify points of theological, historical, and ethical commonality between the world’s largest ... More

Martin Luther, Islam, and the Ottoman Turks  

Adam S. Francisco

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The geographical extension of Islam into Christian lands generated a wide variety of responses and a tremendous amount of consternation amidst its subject and neighboring populations. This ... More

Muslim-Christian Relations: Historical and Contemporary Realities  

Jane Smith

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Throughout the nearly fifteen centuries of Muslim-Christian encounter, individual adherents of both traditions often have lived peaceably with each other. At the same time, Muslim ... More

Muslim-Jewish Relations  

Reuven Firestone

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Muslim-Jewish relations began with the emergence of Islam in 7th-century Arabia, but contacts between pre-Jewish Israelites and pre-Muslim Arabs had been common for nearly two millennia ... More

Muslims in Russia and the Successor States  

James H. Meyer

Online publication date:
May 2019
The history of Muslim populations in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union is long and varied. In a Pew–Templeton poll conducted in Russia in 2010, 10 percent of ... More

Mysticism in Sufi Islam  

David Cook

Online publication date:
May 2015
Sufism is the major expression of mysticism in Islam. While Sufism developed out of the fusion of Qur’anic ascetic tendencies and the vast fund of Christian (and other) mystical sayings ... More

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