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Patrick Q. Mason

Online publication date:
Sep 2015

...Alexander, Thomas G. Mormonism in Transition: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 1890–1930 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986. Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830–1900 . 3d ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2005. Arrington, Leonard J. , and Davis Bitton . The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints . 2d ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992. Barlow, Philip L. Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-day Saints in American Religion . Updated ed. New York: Oxford...

Mormonism and Deseret  

John G. Turner

Online publication date:
Jun 2017

...missionary service. In the months before the temple’s dedication, Smith and his closest male followers washed each other with perfumed spirits, then anointed each other with oil. Then, in the early spring of 1836 , Latter-day Saint men and women enjoyed several days full of rituals, including foot washing and the partaking of the Lord’s Supper. It was a Latter-day Saint Pentecost, at which church members cursed their Missouri enemies, saw visions, and spoke in tongues. 5 In Nauvoo, Smith introduced additional rituals, including baptism for the dead, marital sealings...

Byzantine Christian Worship  

Peter Galadza

Online publication date:
May 2016

...of the latter, even though many Orthodox have retained the command, “Catechumens, depart.” 47 The Liturgy of the Word Much of the hymnography of the Liturgy of the Word consists of chants that originally served as entrance hymns. The 5th century sees the introduction of the Trisagion (“Holy God, Holy and Mighty . . .”), the 6th century witnesses the inclusion of the Ho Monogenes chant (“O Only-begotten Son”), and variable troparia also come to be sung as entrance hymns. However, instead of successive chants displacing previous entrance hymns, the latter have generally...


Joas Wagemakers

Online publication date:
Aug 2016

...jihad—in its spiritual, social, and military forms—is a legitimate concept in Islam, not just Jihadi-Salafis. What sets the latter apart from other Salafis is the belief that military jihad should not just—in what may be termed a “classical jihad”—be waged between Muslims and non-Muslims to defend or expand the abode of Islam ( dār al-Islām ) but also to fight against what they perceive to be the apostate rulers in the Muslim world itself. The latter, Jihadi-Salafis believe, have forfeited their claim to being Muslims and deserve to be killed for their application of laws...

Early Christian Worship  

Paul F. Bradshaw

Online publication date:
Mar 2015

...other than immersion in water or an anointing with oil precedes the immersion, with the Eucharist coming immediately after it. We do not even find the baptismal theology of Saint Paul in Romans 6, so influential in later centuries and in modern liturgical revision, referred to in these latter sources. His concept of dying and rising with Christ is not one that shaped most early baptismal thinking, which focused instead on ideas such as illumination and new birth. It is for that reason that a preference for Easter as the baptismal season is also found only in North African...

Primitivism in America  

Matthew Bowman

...Gospel Ministers?,” in J. R. Graves , ed., Southern Baptist Almanac and Register (Nashville: Graves, 1855), 9. 18. Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, UT: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1981), 132:30, 40. 19. Preach My Gospel: A Guide to Missionary Service (Salt Lake City, UT: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2004), 72. 20. Cited in Stephen Gottschalk , The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life (Berkeley: Univeristy of California Press, 1973), 23...

Tantric Buddhism in Japan: Kūkai and Saichō  

David L. Gardiner

Online publication date:
Dec 2019

... from doing so. Yet his chief interest remained in strengthening the foundation for Tiantai study and practice in Japan, for which project he was well equipped. To serve as well Kanmu’s interest in promoting Tantric practice, however, Saichō sought the assistance of Kūkai once the latter returned from China. In 798 Saichō began giving public talks on the Lotus Sutra , first in Nara and later a series at Takaosan-ji ( 高雄山寺 ‎) (also known as Jingo-ji 神護寺 ‎), on the western edge of what became the new capital. His chief sponsor for the Takao lectures was Wake no...

The Philosophical Works and Influence of Dignāga and Dharmakīrti  

Dan Arnold

...s” ( svasaṃvitti ) does, too—and in fact, there is reason to think he finally meant that only the latter kind of awareness is genuinely and nonconceptual. 20 Dignāga’s idea here is that it is in the nature of every cognition to have two basically different kinds of “aspect” ( ākāra ): one that represents what the cognition is of (an aspect that is, say, a tree or a cow), and one that represents the cognition’s own awareness of itself as cognizing that. The latter he referred to as a cognition’s “self-awareness,” which effectively denotes something like the su...

Daoist Mysticism  

Judson B. Murray

Online publication date:
Jun 2019

...and exhausted, causes them to deteriorate and perish. Moreover, that which is extraordinary and supernatural—both in the external world and in human beings—possesses an abundance of jing and radiates it. In the former case, people call such things “ghosts and spirits” and, in the latter, they are “sages.” 13 The “spirit” ( shen 神 ‎) is another animating and transformative aspect of the self, relating, in particular, to its sensory and cognitive engagement with what lies outside it. Shen resides in a person’s xin 心 ‎, which signifies both the physical organ...

The Six Nara Schools  

Mikaël Bauer

Online publication date:
May 2018

...development of the onmyōdō ( 陰陽道 ‎; yin-yang divination) tradition all interacted with the Buddhist schools of the Nara period. In addition, when dealing with Nara and early Heian period Buddhist texts we should realize that the former were produced in a predominantly Confucian and the latter in an increasingly Buddhist narrative framework. 1 The production of Buddhist commentaries by Nara monastics reached its height by the late 8th and early 9th centuries , with few exegetic texts being written during the first decades of the Nara period. 2 The Buddhist schools were...

The Alevis  

Gisela Procházka-Eisl

Online publication date:
Apr 2016

...Kırşehir and to other Alevi-Bektaşi saints is very common. In Alevism as well as in several other communities, such as the Kurdish Ahl-e Haqq and the Arab Nusayri-Alawis, the degree of veneration of the Twelve Imams and ʿAli goes far beyond ʿAli’s position with the Twelver Shia. The latter were counted among the ghulat (“exaggerators”) movements in early Islam. The term ghulat is used by both orthodox Sunnite and Shiite theologians pejoratively. ʿAli’s position in Alevism, and especially his relation to Muhammad, is the subject of several Alevi traditions. Some...

Alternative Religious Movements and Race in America  

Emily Suzanne Clark

Online publication date:
Jan 2017

...classic Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People , historian Jon Butler coined the term antebellum spiritual hothouse to refer to the flurry of religious innovation that followed disestablishment. 3 The development and growth of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or the Mormons), the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (or the Shakers), the Oneida Perfectionists, the Millerites, American Spiritualism, and the growing popularity of the Methodists and Baptists all attest to the innovation of this period. Some...

Scientific Approaches to Mysticism  

Stephen Kaplan

Online publication date:
Jun 2016

...culled in their enormous diversity, the tendency for those analyzing the data is to create typologies, such as Zaehner’s. Other typologies include apophatic and kataphatic mystical experiences in which the former emphasizes the inexpressibility of the mystical experience, while the latter emphasizes the describability of the mystical experience. Introvertive mysticism and extrovertive mysticism, as articulated by W. T. Stace, is another common typology. 5 Such typologies are not mutually exclusive. One must be cautious about the utilization of these typologies as ...

Tantric Buddhism in Japan: Shingon, Tendai, and the Esotericization of Japanese Buddhisms  

David L. Gardiner

Online publication date:
Aug 2018

...repentance. Beginning with this, for the next ten years the rites for national protection took the shape of the former during the day and the latter at night. Of course repentance was originally an individual act to regret past negative deeds and to promise not to repeat them, but in Japan it became linked with native purification [ harae ] significance and assumed the communal form of thaumaturgic ritual chanting . . . Then in the latter half of the ninth century the nation protecting rites were no longer documented as “repentance” but rather as the “chanting of Shingon...

Martin Luther in Global Pentecostalism  

Sarah Hinlicky Wilson

Online publication date:
Nov 2016

...history in defense of the newly reemerging Pentecostal phenomena quickly became something like a creedal confession. Thomas Ball Barratt Thus Thomas Ball Barratt ( 1862–1940 ), a Norwegian Methodist turned Pentecostal, wrote in his 1909 (revised 1928 ) In the Days of the Latter Rain : The Lutheran Reformation carried the doctrine of “Justification by Faith” on its banner. How was it met? History repeated itself. As when the disciples of Christ had to break away from much of Jewish tradition and teaching, and give a clearer definition of God and His dealings...

Jewish Liturgy  

Ruth Langer

Online publication date:
Aug 2016

...written c. 875 when the heads of two rival rabbinic academies both answered queries from Spain about how to pray. Rav Natronai Gaon’s list of the one hundred blessings that must be recited daily became incorporated into the Seder (order of prayers of) Rav ῾ ‎Amram Ga ᾽ ‎on . The latter, summarizing the laws of prayer with embedded liturgical texts, had enormous influence, setting the pattern for all European liturgies. Unfortunately, no early manuscripts of it survive; the scribal tendency to adapt the prayer texts to their own current liturgical practice means that...

Orthodox Christians and the Evangelical Lutheran Tradition  

A.G. Roeber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017

...juxtaposition of “scripture” and “tradition” (the latter identified with the “teaching office” of the papacy) was a position that Luther could not have had the opportunity to engage in his lifetime. 3 Sporadic Contacts From the Late Early Modern to the Early 20th Century Although neither Luther nor Philip Melanchthon personally observed Orthodox worship or carried on a dialogue with Orthodox theologians, Melanchthon’s prodigy-student David Chytraeus did. Managing to hear Luther lecture shortly before the latter’s death, the teen-age Chytraeus embarked on a stellar...

Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper  

R. David Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017 were, “high” and “low” Christian theologies of the sacraments; the former broadly and variably conceptualize the sacramental events as nexuses of divine and human action during which the mysteries of the faith are mediated or enacted through or by use of the elements, while the latter unfold the idea that the sacraments are primarily, if not exclusively, human liturgical actions, the significance of which is due not to any efficaciousness, but to their functions as emblems of Christian commitment and obedience. While Luther does in a few texts discuss the sacraments...

Religion, Modernity, and Assimilation in America  

Samira K. Mehta

...and demographics of Jews and Catholics, however, made these dynamics work very differently for the two groups. Additionally, questions of how to adapt or deal with the religious majority were not only questions for immigrants in the 19th century —homegrown religious groups like the Latter Day Saints found themselves running afoul of the dominant patterns of religious life in the United States. The disestablishment of religion in many American colonies and in the young republic offered Jews, Catholics, and U.S.-born religious movements both the opportunity to practice...

Martin Luther and Ontology  

Dennis Bielfeldt

Online publication date:
Oct 2016

...question of ontology was thematized within Luther scholarship in the middle of the 20th century, strong voices spoke of Luther’s rejection of Aristotelian “substance ontology” in favor of a “relational ontology,” suggesting that the former characterized Roman Catholic theology and the latter authentic Lutheran theology. 2 All of this changed in the late 1970s, when Tuomoo Mannermaa’s school of Finnish Luther research began to explore the connection between Luther’s notion of the presence of Christ in faith and Orthodoxy’s theosis (deification) motif. Particularly ...