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Jin-Song von Storch

The energetics considerations based on Lorenz’s available potential energy A focus on identification and quantification of processes capable of converting external energy sources into the kinetic energy of atmospheric and oceanic general circulations. Generally, these considerations consist of: (a) identifying the relevant energy compartments from which energy can be converted against friction to kinetic energy of motions of interests; (b) formulating for these energy compartments budget equations that describe all possible energy pathways; and (c) identifying the dominant energy pathways using realistic data. In order to obtain a more detailed description of energy pathways, a partitioning of motions, for example, into a “mean” and an “eddy” component, or into a diabatic and an adiabatic component, is used. Since the budget equations do not always suggest the relative importance of all possible pathways, often not even the directions, data that describe the atmospheric and the oceanic state in a sufficiently accurate manner are needed for evaluating the energy pathways. Apart from the complication due to different expressions of A , ranging from the original definition by Lorenz in 1955 to its approximations and to more generally defined forms, one has to balance the complexity of the respective budget equations that allows the evaluation of more possible energy pathways, with the quality of data available that allows sufficiently accurate estimates of energy pathways. With regard to the atmosphere, our knowledge, as inferred from the four-box Lorenz energy cycle, has consolidated in the last two decades, by, among other means, using data assimilation products obtained by combining observations with realistic atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). The eddy kinetic energy, amounting to slightly less than 50% of the total kinetic energy, is supported against friction through a baroclinic pathway “fueled” by the latitudinally dependent diabatic heating. The mean kinetic energy is supported against friction by converting eddy kinetic energy via inverse cascades. For the ocean, our knowledge is still emerging. The description through the four-box Lorenz energy cycle is approximative and was only estimated from a simulation of a 0 . 1 ° oceanic general circulation models (OGCM) realistically forced at the sea surface, rather than from a data assimilation product. The estimates obtained so far suggest that the oceanic eddy kinetic energy, amounting almost 75% of the total oceanic kinetic energy, is supported against friction through a baroclinic pathway similar to that in the atmosphere. However, the oceanic baroclinic pathway is “fueled” to a considerable extent by converting mean kinetic energy supported by winds into mean available potential energy. Winds are also the direct source of the kinetic energy of the mean circulation, without involving noticeable inverse cascades from transients, at least not for the ocean as a whole. The energetics of oceanic general circulation can also be examined by separating diabatic from adiabatic processes. Such a consideration is thought to be more appropriate for understanding the energetics of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC), since this circulation is sensitive to density changes induced by diabatic mixing. Further work is needed to quantify the respective energy pathways using realistic data.


Carl Wunsch

Oceanic mixing is one of the major determinants of the ocean circulation and its climatological influences. Existing distributions of mixing properties determine the rates of storage and redistribution within the climate system of fundamental scalar tracers including heat, fresh water, oxygen, carbon, and others. Observations have overturned earlier concepts that mixing rates might be approximately uniform throughout the ocean volume, with profound implications for determining the circulation and its properties. Inferences about past and potential future oceanic circulations and the resulting climate influence require determination of changed energy inputs and the expected consequent adjustment of mixing processes and their influence.


This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. Venus is a slowly rotating planet with a thick atmosphere (~9.2 MPa at the surface). The ground- and satellite-based observations have shown atmospheric superrotation (atmospheric rotation much faster than the solid surface rotation), cloud patterns (e.g., Y-shaped clouds), and polar vortices (polar dipole, cold collar, and fine structures). The Venusian atmospheric circulation, controlled by the planet’s radiative forcing and astronomical parameters, is quite different from the Earth’s one. Since the meteorological data have been accumulated, understanding of the atmospheric circulation has been gradually enriched with the help of theories of geophysical fluid dynamics and meteorology. Observations and fundamental dynamics of the atmospheric circulation are overviewed in this article. In the cloud layer (49-70 km altitude) far from the surface, planetary-scale brightness variations unique to Venus and thermally induced meridional winds have been observed, along with superrotational flows of >100 m/s. The fully developed superrotation ~60-times faster than the planetary rotation is maintained by meridional circulation and waves. Thermal tides, Rossby wave, Kelvin wave, and gravity wave play important roles in some promising mechanisms for maintaining the fast atmospheric rotation. In the lower atmosphere below the cloud layer, unlike the Earth, the general circulation is still unknown, because there is a lack of the global simultaneous observation. Thus, in addition to the limited observations, development of the atmospheric modeling and understanding of the fluid dynamics help to elucidate the atmospheric circulation system. Recently, general circulation models have simulated the dynamical and thermal structures of the Venus atmosphere. The recent advances and future perspectives are marshaled, along with the outstanding issues.