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abacus  

Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
An abacus (ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον), a counting board, was the usual aid to reckoning in antiquity. The Greeks and Romans alike used a board with vertical columns, on which (working from right to left) units, ... More

Abbott, Edith  

Jean K. Quam

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Edith Abbott (1876–1957) was a social worker and educator. She was Dean of the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago from 1924 to 1942 and she helped in ... More

Abbott, Grace  

Jean K. Quam

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Grace Abbott (1878–1939) was a teacher who went on to become Director of the Immigrants Protective League of Chicago and Director of the U.S. Children's Bureau. In 1934 she became professor ... More

Abernathy, Ralph David  

Lou M. Beasley

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Ralph David Abernathy (1926–1990) was a pastor who became president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference after the assassination of Martin Luther King. He was director of ... More

abortion  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More

Academic Capitalism  

Richard Münch

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Academic capitalism is a unique hybrid that unites the scientific search for truth and the economic maximization of profits. It turns universities into enterprises competing for capital ... More

Academic Optimism  

Martinette V. Horner, Derrick D. Jordan, and Kathleen M. Brown

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Education
Academic optimism was developed in 2006 as a latent concept that provides insight into the improvement of student outcomes especially for those who, because of socioeconomic status, ... More

Accommodating Students with Physical Disabilities in Higher Education  

Anna Escamilla

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Students with disabilities are becoming more and more common in higher education classrooms, including social work classrooms. The challenges that come with accommodating students so as to ... More

Accountability and Blame Avoidance After Crises  

Sanneke Kuipers and Annika Brändström

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
The post-crisis accountability process is a purification ritual that serves to channel public emotions and enables re-equilibration after a severe disturbance of the sociopolitical order. ... More

Accountability in Journalism  

Susanne Fengler

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Communication
In the past decade, academic and professional debates about media accountability have spread around the globe – but have done so in a fundamentally different framework. In many Western ... More

Accretion Processes  

Alessandro Morbidelli

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Science
In planetary science, accretion is the process in which solids agglomerate to form larger and larger objects, and eventually planets are produced. The initial conditions are a disc of gas ... More

Achaean Confederacy, Greek  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
Achaean Confederacy, federal organization developed by the twelve Achaean cities (see achaea) united in the cult of Zeus Hamarios. First mentioned in 453 bce as Athenian allies, Achaea's independence ... More

Achaemenids  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
The term, as used by Herodotus (1. 125), refers to one of the three clans (phrētrē) of the Pasargadae tribe to which the Persian kings belonged; its eponymous ancestor was supposedly Achaemenes (Hdt. ... More

Achievement Motivation in Education  

Judith Meece and Charlotte Agger

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Education
Achievement motivation theories are used to understand gender discrepancies in motivation across various academic domains. Early on in the field of motivation research, researchers commonly ... More

acoustics  

Massimo Raffa

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
From the earliest stages of Greek thought, sound was thought to originate as the result of an impact between two objects. At first it was believed that the swiftness and force of the impact ... More

acta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
Acta means ‘the things that have been done’ and has two specialized, overlapping senses in Roman history; one is a gazette, the other is official acts, especially of an emperor.The Acta diurna were a ... More

Actaeon  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
Actaeon, in mythology son of *Aristaeus and Autonoë, daughter of *Cadmus, and a great huntsman. Ovid gives the most familiar version of his death (Met. 3. 138 ff.): one day on Mt. Cithaeron he came ... More

Actium  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
Actium (Ἄκτιον), a flat sandy promontory at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf, forming part of the territory of Anactorium, as well as the NW extremity of *Acarnania. A cult of Apollo was located ... More

Active Asteroids  

Henry Hsieh

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Science
The study of active asteroids is a relatively new field of study in Solar System science, focusing on objects with asteroid-like orbits but that exhibit comet-like activity. This field, ... More

Active Listening, Music Education, and Society  

Dan Mamlok

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Education
A common definition of listening distinguishes between hearing and listening. The basic distinction describes hearing as a passive action of perceiving sounds, whereas listening involves ... More

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