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Cayster River  

Marijana Ricl

The Cayster River flows through Southern Lydia and empties into the Aegean Sea NW of Ephesus. The lower part of its fertile valley belonged to Ephesus in the Hellenistic and Roman period, as is amply attested by inscriptions. A substantial part of this region belonged to Ephesian Artemis. East of ancient Thyaira (modern Tire) began the Caystrian plain known for its urban centres Hypaipa and Dios Hieron. Hypaipa and its venerable sanctuary of Persian Artemis often feature in ancient literary and documentary sources. The Cilbian plain was the easternmost and the least urbanized part of the valley, no less fertile and populated than the rest. The prevalent type of community throughout the valley were village settlements (komai/katoikiai) or varying size and population.The Cayster River (modern Küçük Menderes) flows through southern Lydia for about 120 km in a valley rarely more than 20 km wide: it is widest between Gülüce (ancient Hypaipa) and Konaklı, situated between the Tmolos Mt. (mod. Bozdağ) on the north (100 km long, 2157 m high) and the Messogis (mod. Aydın Dağları, .

Article

Pseudo-Oppian  

Emily Kneebone

A poet from Apamea in Syria (see Cyn. 2.127), author of the Cynegetica, a Greek didactic poem on hunting in four books (2,144 hexameter verses). The author’s name is lost, and nothing is known of him beyond the information provided in the poem, which was frequently transmitted in manuscripts together with Oppian’s Halieutica and was attributed to the same poet until the 18th century, along with a now-lost Ixeutica (a poem on bird-catching, possibly in two books). The Suda and the Byzantine Vitae attached to the manuscripts conflate the poets. The Cynegetica models itself on the Halieutica in many respects, but was clearly composed by a different author: the two poems refer to different homelands (the author of the Halieutica is from Cilicia), were written at different times (the Halieutica between 177 and 180 ce), and are stylistically distinct. The Cynegetica is addressed to the Roman emperor Caracalla, and is likely to have been composed between 212 and 217 ce, after the deaths of Septimius Severus and Geta in 211.

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Ephesus  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, Charlotte Roueché, and Antony Spawforth

City at the mouth of the river Caÿster on the west coast of *Asia Minor, which rivalled and finally displaced *Miletus, and owing to the silting up of both harbours since antiquity has itself been displaced by Izmir (*Smyrna) as the seaport of the *Maeander valley. Ephesus was founded by Ionian colonists led by Androclus son of *Codrus. It had little maritime activity before Hellenistic times, when it was oligarchic in temper and open to indigenous influences. The city maintained itself against the *Cimmerians and also *Lydia until its capture by *Croesus, who contributed to the construction of the great temple of Artemis. Under *Persia it shared the fortunes of the other coastal cities; it was a member of the *Delian League, but revolted c. 412 bce and sided with Sparta. The Archaic Artemisium, burnt down in 356 bce, was rebuilt in the 4th century bce, the Ephesians refusing *Alexander (3) the Great's offer to fund the cost (Strabo 14.