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Article

Abolition of Involuntary Mental Health Services  

Brianna Suslovic

Apart from a few dissenting perspectives, social workers have not coherently engaged with the moral dilemmas inherent in the profession’s participation in coercing or mandating patients to mental health treatment. With roots in the development of asylums in 1400s Western Europe, involuntary mental health services continue to rely on processes involving the state in order to detain individuals who are deemed severely mentally ill. Legal precedent and practices in the United States as they pertain to involuntary mental health treatment reflect tensions about promoting individual freedom while maintaining safety. Given the diversity of circumstances that social workers may navigate in this particular area of practice, the profession’s ethical commitments to self-determination are potentially in conflict with practices of involuntarily hospitalizing or providing mental health services to individuals. In fact, international health and human rights bodies have weighed in on the role of coercion in mental health treatment, advocating for decreased use of coercive means of confining and treating patients with severe mental illness. Critical perspectives on involuntary mental health services are often rooted in the critiques of psychiatric consumer/survivor/ex-patient organizers, who argue that detaining patients against their will and mandating them to participate in treatment or take medication is a form of violence that violates their rights. There are also some promising approaches to severe mental illness that promote self-determination and attempt to reduce the likelihood of involuntary or coerced treatment, reorienting toward the value of peer support and denouncing the use of nonconsensual active rescue in crisis hotline work. Abolitionists also advocate for the elimination of involuntary mental health services, advocating instead for the development of non-coercive forms of crisis response and care that rely on alternatives to the police.

Article

A Case Study of Brasília and the Federal District: Community Participation and Sanitary and Environmental Education in Condominial Sewerage Systems at CAESB  

César Augusto Rissoli and Maria Martinele Feitosa Martins

Adding a social component to sanitation work has traditionally been done as a separate, “decorative element,” which can be seen as dispensable. By this logic, a direct relationship is not forged between the objective of the project and the interest of its beneficiaries, and so the sanitation intervention is rendered ineffective. The Federal District Environmental Sanitation Company (Companhia de Saneamento Ambiental do Distrito Federal) (CAESB) has used the Condominial Sewerage System for over 30 years with a great deal of success. It has become a reference point for this type of sanitary sewage modal, where the community mobilization social component, which involves community participation and environmental education, demonstrates that these areas are key to achieving success and effectiveness in a sanitation intervention, which is a fundamental element in the current context of chronic service deficits of this type of infrastructure as well as of insufficient resources. This article seeks to describe the defining aspects of the Condominial Sewerage System in the Federal District and provide an overview of the key features of the methodology as used by CAESB and its experience in developing the social components of community participation and environmental education which are used in implementing this type of sanitary sewerage system. At CAESB, this social component is absolutely inseparable from the technical component, which is why it is called “technical-social mobilization.” It is a set of actions, always transversally linked with the technical procedures, establishing the common objective of universalization of sewerage system service. Operating in this way for more than 30 years has established a strong relationship between the company and the community, based on a sense of civic duty. This has optimized resource use and allowed every family to connect to the system, with more than 350,000 sewage connections, serving more than 1,500,000 inhabitants throughout the Federal District.

Article

Agreement in the Romance Languages  

Michele Loporcaro

This article examines agreement in the Romance languages in light of current studies and with the toolkit of linguistic typology. I will first introduce the definition of agreement assumed in the article, demonstrating its superiority to the alternatives proposed in the literature, and then move on to consider empirical data from all branches of the Romance language family, illustrating how agreement works in all its components. This will require dealing with, in order, the controllers and targets of agreement, then the morphosyntactic features that are active in the agreement rules, then the conditions that may constrain those rules, and finally the syntactic domains in which agreement takes place. In the first half of this overview, the focus will be mainly on what is common to all Romance languages, while in the second half I will concentrate on the phenomena of agreement that are remarkable, in that they are rare and/or unexpected, from a crosslinguistic perspective. It will become clear from this survey that there is no dearth of such unusual phenomena, and that the Romance language family, especially through its lesser-known nonstandard local vernaculars (which will be treated here with equal dignity to the major literary languages), holds in store considerable richness that must be taken into serious consideration by any language typologist interested in agreement.

Article

Anthropology of Art and Performance  

Nataliya Tchermalykh

The anthropology of art and performance is an interdisciplinary research area that emerged from the convergence of social and visual anthropology, sociology of art and performance, visual and museum studies, and cultural studies. Despite its fragmented nature, anthropology of art as a field is marked by theoretical productivity, inherent interdisciplinarity, and empirical depth. Throughout the 20th century, anthropologists have invested significant theoretical effort in grappling with what can be termed the inherent dilemmas of art and anthropology. These dilemmas, stemming from the ambiguous nature of art as an object of inquiry, persistently resist resolution and remain subjects of debate. Essentially, they revolve around three fundamental questions: Is art a universal category? Should anthropology study what art means, or what it does? Can artists be anthropologists, and can anthropologists be artists? While trying to tackle these questions, ethnographers, interested in the materiality of objects defined as “art,” have extensively analyzed their trajectories, moving from the peripheries of the art world(s) toward its center(s) while producing all-encompassing systems of categorization of symbolically and aesthetically meaningful objects. At the same time, criticism of the universal validity of the category of art has been decentered by the ascendance of the global art market and the proliferation of its centers in post-colonial contexts, attracting artists and curators, including those of indigenous origin—adhering to its values. On the global art scene, the categorical boundaries between art, artifact, and commodity have been essentially dissolved, pushing anthropologists and artists to explore each other. These collaborative methodological discussions encompass the limits of multimodal and collaborative ethnographies, as well as curatorial experiments engaging anthropologists, artists, and curators in transversal conversations, moving beyond purely textual representations of anthropological debates. In contrast to these dilemmas that may at times appear scholastic, the early 21st century offers a potential renewal to the field through the intersection of art and political anthropology. This approach explores artistic and performative occurrences beyond the institutionally defined confines of galleries, museums, and art markets. Consideration of the contemporary phenomenon of global political iconoclasm supports this perspective, observable across diverse regions, including the United States, Western Europe, and postcolonial and postsocialist societies. Although this movement did not originate from officially designated art spaces, it revolved around works of art, such as statues, monuments, murals, and museum collections, involving artists and other actors. Here, art serves as a universally perceptible form of political expression, a tool for social mobilization, a witness to political violence, and a device in memory-making and decolonization. Despite its profound impact, there remains a lack of sufficient ethnographic tools to recognize, describe, and theorize the agency of artistic and performative practices occurring within the global political scene, not just within the realm of art.

Article

Articulation and Recognition of San Firstness in Southern Africa and the Contestation Over Citizenship  

Nhamo Anthony Mhiripiri, Keyan Tomaselli, and Julie Grant

Different groups of contemporary San or “Bushmen” peoples in southern Africa have a different status. Bantu and White Europeans’ subjugation and marginalization of the San over the past centuries has traceable influences on the way that the San have been represented and are perceived in the public consciousness. Public perceptions are often based on what the mass media present as San identities. This also has implications on the way different countries recognize them as people and as citizens. In the best of situations, they have at least been accorded the status of First Nation within the multiracial and multiethnic modern nation-state. At worst, they lack recognition and are stateless or without citizenship.

Article

Battle of Adwa  

Getachew Metaferia

The Battle of Adwa was fought between Ethiopia and Italy during the rise of European colonialism and imperialism. It was a period when European powers partitioned Africa and exploited African resources to spur their economies and industrial development at the expense of the colonized societies. While African countries, except Liberia, came under European colonialism, Ethiopia remained the exception as it defeated the Italian army and remained the sole independent African country. Ethiopian success came as the result of unity among Ethiopians, astute leadership, formidable geographic terrain, a long and enduring history, and the warlike spirit of the people, especially when attacked by outsiders. The outcome of the Battle of Adwa also defused the mentality of superiority of Europeans and reverberated throughout colonized and disenfranchised societies. After the battle, Ethiopia had peace for four decades, until the dawn of World War II, and embarked upon development and the introduction of new technologies and systems. This also exemplifies that meaningful development, in any country, does not take place in the absence of durable peace and security.

Article

The Book of Hosea  

Brad E. Kelle

The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) book of Hosea presents the messages associated with Hosea the son of Beeri, a prophet active in the Northern Kingdom of Israel during the second half of the 8th century bce. Hosea is the first book in the Book of the Twelve (Minor Prophets) and is canonical for Jews and Christians. The book contains a vast diversity of metaphors that describe Yhwh and Israel in multiple, sometimes paradoxical, ways, and it features (often negative) imagery drawn from realms such as family, sexuality, nature, wildlife, and farming. The book is best known for the portrayal of the prophet’s marriage to a sexually promiscuous woman (Gomer) and their tumultuous family life as a metaphor for Yhwh’s relationship with Israel, especially its rulers (chs. 1–3). However, debate surrounds most issues related to the book’s origins, composition, setting, and relationship to history (and to any biographical information about Hosea and Gomer), as well the interpretation of its depictions of gender and violence and its portrayals of women. Often thought to be concerned solely with Israel’s religious life (perhaps especially the people’s abandonment of Yhwh for other gods), Hosea shows a broader interest in Israel’s political, social, and economic realities. Set against the backdrop of the growing imperialism of the Neo-Assyrian Empire across the ancient Near East in the mid-8th century bce, Hosea’s messages advocate a particular understanding of Israel’s identity as Yhwh’s people (and the political, socioeconomic, and religious practices that should accompany it). Israel should be exclusively devoted to Yhwh and resist seeking other gods, religious practices, economic systems, and political alliances for their provision and protection. Major theological themes include the people’s abandonment of Yhwh, judgment, repentance, and hope for restoration. The rhetoric and language with which these messages are presented call for the ongoing use of metaphor theory; gender analysis; feminist criticism; masculinity studies; trauma interpretation; and violence studies; alongside more traditional historical, literary, and theological inquiries.

Article

Brazil’s Sanctuaries and Sculpture: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Ouro Preto  

Rodrigo Bastos

Some of the main works of religious architecture and sculpture were produced in three important Brazilian cities. All of them were founded in the so-called colonial period, that is, as a territory dominated by the Portuguese Empire. All of them have a very rich historical and artistic heritage, constituting an expressive sample of religious art produced in Brazilian territory. The historical aspects of some of these main works emphasize the theoretical, artistic, and conceptual assumptions contemporary to the period of their construction.

Article

The China-Russia Trade through Nerchinsk and Kiakhta  

Ilya Vinkovetsky

Direct bilateral trade between the Romanov and the Qing Empires began officially with the signing of the Nerchinsk treaty in 1689. State-sponsored caravans initiated in European Russia traveled the lengthy continental route from European Russia across Siberia and the Gobi, arriving in Beijing to conduct trade. But by the second quarter of the 18th century, caravan trade was disrupted by a new arrangement, initiated by the Qing, that in the long term proved more agreeable to both empires: the two sides agreed to demarcate their common border, enforce and patrol it more effectively, and establish a new trading post on the Mongol/Transbaikal frontier. Caravan trade was subsequently phased out, replaced by the more efficient trade at the border hub of Kiakhta, where virtually all of the China-Russia trade was conducted almost exclusively by barter. Strict barter regulations, which became a distinguishing characteristic of the “Kiakhta system,” remained in place into the 1850s. Trade at Kiakhta expanded in the 18th century, and in the 19th century, when growing volumes of tea replaced silk, rhubarb, tobacco, and luxury goods as the chief Chinese export, it boomed. In the early years of China-Russia trade, the Russians offered furs almost to the exclusion of any other exports. But as the populations of the fur-bearing animals plummeted, they diversified their offerings. Textiles and light manufacturing came to play an increasingly important role in the 19th century. The result was that Kiakhta trade stimulated manufacturing in Russia and tea-growing agricultural economy in China. Affecting fashions, tastes, and customs, the exchange of commodities (furs, tea, rhubarb, tobacco, cloth, etc.) led to important changes in Russian and Chinese societies and economies. Ongoing trade between the Qing and the Romanov empire-states, conducted on the Buryat/Mongol frontier, also supported colonization and development, stimulated imperial expansion, and had far-ranging ramifications for the indigenous peoples of the Transbaikal region, Mongolia, Siberia, and Central Asia. Geopolitical changes of the late 1850s, culminating in the 1860 treaties that overturned the rules of China-Russia trade, put an end to Kiakhta’s status as a funnel of transregional and global trade.

Article

Chinese Leadership  

Lynda Song, Dangzhu Zhang, Bei Lyu, and Yiyi Chen

Leadership is universally acknowledged as a pivotal subject within both academic discourse and practice. Numerous well-established leadership theories have emerged through research conducted in Western cultures, giving rise to valid inquiries into their relevance in diverse cultural contexts. Given China’s rapid economic growth and pivotal position in the world, it is important for organizations to explore Indigenous leadership theories that prove effective in the Chinese context. Chinese Indigenous leadership contains unique elements that are deeply rooted in the rich Chinese cultural heritage and intricate internal and external management environments. Specifically, Chinese philosophies place a significant emphasis on prioritizing interpersonal ethics as the cornerstone of behaviors and advocate viewing and understanding the world through a holistic and dynamic standpoint. Building on this foundation, a theoretical framework for Chinese Indigenous leadership theories that are centered on ethics and morality (including Character-Performance-Maintenance (CPM)leadership theory, transformational leadership in the Chinese context, paternalistic leadership, fraternalistic leadership, ethical leadership, and Tao-oriented leadership) and characterized by a holistic dynamic balance perspective (including differential leadership, paradoxical leadership, dialectical leadership, crisis leadership, and vigilant leadership) is presented. Furthermore, an extensive review and analysis of the origins, definitions, dimensions, existing research findings, and future research prospects of established Chinese Indigenous leadership theories are conducted. These theories hold the potential to provide an alternative approach to addressing issues related to unethical nature, DEI (diversity, equity, inclusion) matters, and the VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity) environment. In order to advance the understanding of leadership dynamics, future research could adopt multimethod approaches, employ interdisciplinary perspectives, and foster cross-national collaborations. Such collective efforts are expected to further enrich this fascinating field.