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Agreement in the Romance Languages  

Michele Loporcaro

This article examines agreement in the Romance languages in light of current studies and with the toolkit of linguistic typology. I will first introduce the definition of agreement assumed in the article, demonstrating its superiority to the alternatives proposed in the literature, and then move on to consider empirical data from all branches of the Romance language family, illustrating how agreement works in all its components. This will require dealing with, in order, the controllers and targets of agreement, then the morphosyntactic features that are active in the agreement rules, then the conditions that may constrain those rules, and finally the syntactic domains in which agreement takes place. In the first half of this overview, the focus will be mainly on what is common to all Romance languages, while in the second half I will concentrate on the phenomena of agreement that are remarkable, in that they are rare and/or unexpected, from a crosslinguistic perspective. It will become clear from this survey that there is no dearth of such unusual phenomena, and that the Romance language family, especially through its lesser-known nonstandard local vernaculars (which will be treated here with equal dignity to the major literary languages), holds in store considerable richness that must be taken into serious consideration by any language typologist interested in agreement.

Article

Anthropology of Art and Performance  

Nataliya Tchermalykh

The anthropology of art and performance is an interdisciplinary research area that emerged from the convergence of social and visual anthropology, sociology of art and performance, visual and museum studies, and cultural studies. Despite its fragmented nature, anthropology of art as a field is marked by theoretical productivity, inherent interdisciplinarity, and empirical depth. Throughout the 20th century, anthropologists have invested significant theoretical effort in grappling with what can be termed the inherent dilemmas of art and anthropology. These dilemmas, stemming from the ambiguous nature of art as an object of inquiry, persistently resist resolution and remain subjects of debate. Essentially, they revolve around three fundamental questions: Is art a universal category? Should anthropology study what art means, or what it does? Can artists be anthropologists, and can anthropologists be artists? While trying to tackle these questions, ethnographers, interested in the materiality of objects defined as “art,” have extensively analyzed their trajectories, moving from the peripheries of the art world(s) toward its center(s) while producing all-encompassing systems of categorization of symbolically and aesthetically meaningful objects. At the same time, criticism of the universal validity of the category of art has been decentered by the ascendance of the global art market and the proliferation of its centers in post-colonial contexts, attracting artists and curators, including those of indigenous origin—adhering to its values. On the global art scene, the categorical boundaries between art, artifact, and commodity have been essentially dissolved, pushing anthropologists and artists to explore each other. These collaborative methodological discussions encompass the limits of multimodal and collaborative ethnographies, as well as curatorial experiments engaging anthropologists, artists, and curators in transversal conversations, moving beyond purely textual representations of anthropological debates. In contrast to these dilemmas that may at times appear scholastic, the early 21st century offers a potential renewal to the field through the intersection of art and political anthropology. This approach explores artistic and performative occurrences beyond the institutionally defined confines of galleries, museums, and art markets. Consideration of the contemporary phenomenon of global political iconoclasm supports this perspective, observable across diverse regions, including the United States, Western Europe, and postcolonial and postsocialist societies. Although this movement did not originate from officially designated art spaces, it revolved around works of art, such as statues, monuments, murals, and museum collections, involving artists and other actors. Here, art serves as a universally perceptible form of political expression, a tool for social mobilization, a witness to political violence, and a device in memory-making and decolonization. Despite its profound impact, there remains a lack of sufficient ethnographic tools to recognize, describe, and theorize the agency of artistic and performative practices occurring within the global political scene, not just within the realm of art.

Article

Articulation and Recognition of San Firstness in Southern Africa and the Contestation Over Citizenship  

Nhamo Anthony Mhiripiri, Keyan Tomaselli, and Julie Grant

Different groups of contemporary San or “Bushmen” peoples in southern Africa have a different status. Bantu and White Europeans’ subjugation and marginalization of the San over the past centuries has traceable influences on the way that the San have been represented and are perceived in the public consciousness. Public perceptions are often based on what the mass media present as San identities. This also has implications on the way different countries recognize them as people and as citizens. In the best of situations, they have at least been accorded the status of First Nation within the multiracial and multiethnic modern nation-state. At worst, they lack recognition and are stateless or without citizenship.

Article

Battle of Adwa  

Getachew Metaferia

The Battle of Adwa was fought between Ethiopia and Italy during the rise of European colonialism and imperialism. It was a period when European powers partitioned Africa and exploited African resources to spur their economies and industrial development at the expense of the colonized societies. While African countries, except Liberia, came under European colonialism, Ethiopia remained the exception as it defeated the Italian army and remained the sole independent African country. Ethiopian success came as the result of unity among Ethiopians, astute leadership, formidable geographic terrain, a long and enduring history, and the warlike spirit of the people, especially when attacked by outsiders. The outcome of the Battle of Adwa also defused the mentality of superiority of Europeans and reverberated throughout colonized and disenfranchised societies. After the battle, Ethiopia had peace for four decades, until the dawn of World War II, and embarked upon development and the introduction of new technologies and systems. This also exemplifies that meaningful development, in any country, does not take place in the absence of durable peace and security.

Article

The China-Russia Trade through Nerchinsk and Kiakhta  

Ilya Vinkovetsky

Direct bilateral trade between the Romanov and the Qing Empires began officially with the signing of the Nerchinsk treaty in 1689. State-sponsored caravans initiated in European Russia traveled the lengthy continental route from European Russia across Siberia and the Gobi, arriving in Beijing to conduct trade. But by the second quarter of the 18th century, caravan trade was disrupted by a new arrangement, initiated by the Qing, that in the long term proved more agreeable to both empires: the two sides agreed to demarcate their common border, enforce and patrol it more effectively, and establish a new trading post on the Mongol/Transbaikal frontier. Caravan trade was subsequently phased out, replaced by the more efficient trade at the border hub of Kiakhta, where virtually all of the China-Russia trade was conducted almost exclusively by barter. Strict barter regulations, which became a distinguishing characteristic of the “Kiakhta system,” remained in place into the 1850s. Trade at Kiakhta expanded in the 18th century, and in the 19th century, when growing volumes of tea replaced silk, rhubarb, tobacco, and luxury goods as the chief Chinese export, it boomed. In the early years of China-Russia trade, the Russians offered furs almost to the exclusion of any other exports. But as the populations of the fur-bearing animals plummeted, they diversified their offerings. Textiles and light manufacturing came to play an increasingly important role in the 19th century. The result was that Kiakhta trade stimulated manufacturing in Russia and tea-growing agricultural economy in China. Affecting fashions, tastes, and customs, the exchange of commodities (furs, tea, rhubarb, tobacco, cloth, etc.) led to important changes in Russian and Chinese societies and economies. Ongoing trade between the Qing and the Romanov empire-states, conducted on the Buryat/Mongol frontier, also supported colonization and development, stimulated imperial expansion, and had far-ranging ramifications for the indigenous peoples of the Transbaikal region, Mongolia, Siberia, and Central Asia. Geopolitical changes of the late 1850s, culminating in the 1860 treaties that overturned the rules of China-Russia trade, put an end to Kiakhta’s status as a funnel of transregional and global trade.

Article

Chinese Leadership  

Lynda Song, Dangzhu Zhang, Bei Lyu, and Yiyi Chen

Leadership is universally acknowledged as a pivotal subject within both academic discourse and practice. Numerous well-established leadership theories have emerged through research conducted in Western cultures, giving rise to valid inquiries into their relevance in diverse cultural contexts. Given China’s rapid economic growth and pivotal position in the world, it is important for organizations to explore Indigenous leadership theories that prove effective in the Chinese context. Chinese Indigenous leadership contains unique elements that are deeply rooted in the rich Chinese cultural heritage and intricate internal and external management environments. Specifically, Chinese philosophies place a significant emphasis on prioritizing interpersonal ethics as the cornerstone of behaviors and advocate viewing and understanding the world through a holistic and dynamic standpoint. Building on this foundation, a theoretical framework for Chinese Indigenous leadership theories that are centered on ethics and morality (including Character-Performance-Maintenance (CPM)leadership theory, transformational leadership in the Chinese context, paternalistic leadership, fraternalistic leadership, ethical leadership, and Tao-oriented leadership) and characterized by a holistic dynamic balance perspective (including differential leadership, paradoxical leadership, dialectical leadership, crisis leadership, and vigilant leadership) is presented. Furthermore, an extensive review and analysis of the origins, definitions, dimensions, existing research findings, and future research prospects of established Chinese Indigenous leadership theories are conducted. These theories hold the potential to provide an alternative approach to addressing issues related to unethical nature, DEI (diversity, equity, inclusion) matters, and the VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity) environment. In order to advance the understanding of leadership dynamics, future research could adopt multimethod approaches, employ interdisciplinary perspectives, and foster cross-national collaborations. Such collective efforts are expected to further enrich this fascinating field.

Article

Climate Change  

Rob White

Climate change is the defining problem of the 21st century. Global warming is transforming the biophysical landscape in unprecedented ways, with far-reaching negative consequences for all life on the planet. Extreme weather events, prolonged droughts, rising sea levels, and melting glaciers have enormous ramifications for humans and nonhuman species across the globe. Climate change criminology focuses on the crimes and harms associated with climate change. It examines the dynamics of criminality from the point of view of the causes of climate change, as well as the social consequences of climate change. Criminologically, strain theory provides one lens by which to understand climate-related criminal behavior, while the concepts of ecocide and state-corporate crime provide a nexus between crimes of the powerful and global warming to explore. The notion of differential victimization describes how some suffer the effects of climate change to a greater extent than others and includes reference to nonhuman victims such as animals, rivers, and trees. For criminology, climate change demands much greater attention than hitherto has been the case—for it constitutes a profound existential crisis affecting all.

Article

Clitic Doubling in the Romance Languages  

Cecilia Poletto and Francesco Pinzin

The phenomenon of clitic doubling is very widespread in different forms in the Romance languages. It can be defined as the double occurrence of the same constituent twice inside a single clausal unit; one of the two is represented by a clitic while the other has the properties of a whole phrase. It can target essentially all arguments of the verb and is often sensitive to the semantic/pragmatic properties (like definiteness/specificity, topicality, animacy) of the phrasal doublee so that XPs with these properties are more frequently doubled than XPs that do not have them, although there are languages in which doubling covers the whole spectrum of a given argument. A robust empirical generalization is that direct objects can be doubled only in languages that also double indirect objects, while there is no relation with subject clitic doubling.

Article

Puzzles of Commitment, Compliance, and Defection in Water Resource Management  

John Waterbury

Collective action problems (CAPs) are ubiquitous in human undertakings including in the development and management of shared water resources. Various rational-actor models have been applied to understand their dynamics. These analyses tend to come to pessimistic conclusions based on the assumption of “free-riding” whereby any participant in a collective action (CA) will be motivated to benefit from the action without contributing to its costs. If all participants follow this logic, there will be no CA and hence no net benefit to the participants. This view assumes the logic of individual rationality. It does not adequately account for observed behavior, which may be driven by collective or group rationality. CA in water management and other domains has been initiated and sustained despite the temptation of free-riding. To understand why, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of commitment, i.e., the initial collective undertaking; compliance, i.e., sustaining the initial commitment; and defection, when compliance breaks down. None of these variables is static. With respect to water, the technological means of its management constantly change so that the dynamics of compliance change as well. Technological change must be anticipated in the commitment phase. Just as important, cost/benefit analysis must encompass assessing payoffs in domains not related to water itself. These payoffs may not be part of the formal terms of commitment but must inform the compliance process. When the process unravels, “water wars” may result although that has been a rare outcome.

Article

Crime Mapping and Spatial Analysis  

Matthew Valasik

Crime mapping and the spatial analysis of crime includes a variety of techniques and topics. The most rudimentary form of crime mapping is the use of geographic information systems to visualize spatial patterns and organize geographical data for more traditional statistical analysis, i.e., multivariate regression. Spatial analyses may be used in an exploratory way to help ascertain how certain environmental or ecological factors of a neighborhood may affect the geographic distribution of crime. Of particular interest is an understanding of the spatial patterns of crime and responses to them. Topics related to understanding such patterns include crime displacement and diffusion, the mobility patterns of criminal participants, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of geographically targeted crime reduction strategies. There is a robust relationship between crime and space. Within the field of criminology, crime mapping remains an innovative domain with new techniques and visualizations, which assist researchers and practitioners in better understanding how the social and physical environments affect criminal behavior. Combining new approaches like spatialized network analysis or risk terrain modeling with more conventional crime mapping and spatial analysis techniques allows for a more holistic strategy that could inform neighborhood public safety and aid in directing the allocation of resources, e.g., specialized law enforcement and directed patrol, in a more efficient manner.