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Scholasticisms in Martin Luther’s Thought  

Theodor Dieter

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

... Scholasticisms in Martin Luther’s Thought The topic under consideration is an unusual one, as the title “Scholasticisms” indicates. It does not deal with scholasticism as such, but rather with Luther’s relationship to “scholasticism,” and it takes a distinctive methodological approach to the problem. It is a difficult task to identify precisely what the relatum of the relationship between Luther and “scholasticism” actually is. One way would be to study the philosophical and theological texts of the Middle Ages that are commonly called “scholastic,”...

Portrayals of Martin Luther in Print, Stage and Film  

Derek R. Nelson

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...orders had practiced it. The answer was lust. Luther was a man of untamed desires: for sex, for beer, for power, and for personal glory. Denifle is withering in his criticism of Luther, and his prose carries the weight of serious engagement with the best editions of sources available up to that time. In fact the Luther Renaissance arose in part to help refute the caricature of Luther that works like Denifle’s created. Denifle thought Luther was self-contradictory, possessed little to no knowledge of medieval scholasticism, probably had syphilis, was a forger and plagiarizer...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525 The University and the Critique of Scholasticism At the beginning of 1517 , Luther was scarcely known outside Wittenberg, save within his own order, where he served as district vicar. The center of his activity was the university, where he completed his lectures on Galatians in March 1517 and probably began lecturing on Hebrews by the end of the year. 1 Amid his lecturing, Luther continued to advocate Augustine’s theology within the university, urging his colleagues to read Augustine’s works. His theological development in this year...

Martin Luther’s Treatises and Essays  

Mark D. Tranvik

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...ng Martin Luther’s Demonological Rhetoric in His Treatise against the Heavenly Prophets (1525) . Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen, 2010. Rosin, Robert . “Humanism, Luther, and the Wittenberg Reformation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology . Edited by Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomír Batka , 91–104. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Stolt, Birgit . “Luther’s Faith of the Heart: Experience, Emotion and Reason.” In The Global Luther . Edited by Christine Helmer , 131–150. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009. Vind, Anna . “Luther’s Thought Assumed...

Martin Luther’s Disputations  

David Luy

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...permit. 68 Luther had already devoted a significant amount of thought to these topics in several of his early disputations. In the promotion disputation for Bartholomäus Bernhardi in 1516 , Luther explicitly rejects versions of late medieval scholasticism, which view the sinner outside of grace as capable, at least in part (i.e., congruently), of turning himself toward God. 69 The same fundamental critique predominates within Luther’s “Disputation against Scholastic Theology” of 1517 , which focuses especially on the teaching of Gabriel Biel. 70 Luther flatly denies...

Reason and Philosophy in Martin Luther’s Thought  

Hans-Peter Grosshans

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...strongly with the philosophy of scholasticism, is Theodor Dieter’s book on the young Luther and Aristotle. 55 This still seems to be the current dominant trend in the research on Luther’s understanding of philosophy and his concept of reason: to integrate Luther’s thought into the intellectual history of late scholasticism. Further Reading Andreatta, Eugenio . Lutero e Aristotele . Padua, Italy: CUSL Nuova Vita, 1996. Becker, Siegbert W. The Foolishness of God: The Place of Reason in the Theology of Martin Luther . Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern...

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

... see Amedeo Molnár , “Luthers Beziehungen zu den Böhmischen Brüdern,” in Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546 , vol. 1, ed. H. Junghans (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983), 627–639. 7. Gerhart Ladner , The Idea of Reform: Its Impact on Christian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), 35. 8. Ladner, The Idea of Reform , 31. 9. For overviews of Luther’s studies as a monk and preparation for university teaching, see Martin Brecht , Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation...

Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy  

Simon D. Podmore

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

... Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy No essay of this length can hope to do comprehensive justice to its topic; instead, it sketches a seldom-related yet extensive story concerning Martin Luther’s influence on modern European philosophy—a narrative initiated by Luther himself, following the legacy of the Lutheran “self” and the turn toward the subject, including its concomitant critique, in modern philosophical thought. While Luther’s own move can be seen as setting in motion the “Copernican Revolution” that followed, its workings-out assumed a...

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...appears that Luther first turned to the Amerbach edition of these writings in preparation for his lectures on Romans in 1515 . 45 Given developments within late medieval scholasticism and its tendency to grant unaided human efforts a form of merit, Augustine’s writings were a perfect foil. In this regard, Luther was particularly influenced in these lectures by Augustine’s teaching on original sin and how he interpreted the role and purpose of the law in Paul’s writings. 46 By 1518 , after having used Augustine extensively during these lectures, Luther embraced the...

Martin Luther's Practice of Old Testament Commentary  

John A. Maxfield

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...Ecclesia in via .” 38. Erich Seeberg , Studien zu Luthers Genesisvorlesung: Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage nach dem alten Luther (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1932). 39. In addition to Asendorf (listed in Further Reading), see the response to Meinhold’s skepticism and analysis in Mickey Leland Mattox , “Defender of the Most Holy Matriarchs”: Martin Luther’s Interpretation of the Women of Genesis in the Enarrationes in Genesin, 1535–45 (Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought 92; Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003), 263–273. 40. John A. Maxfield , Luther’s Lectures...

Martin Luther’s Life, 1483–1516  

Volker Leppin

Published Online:
Jul 2016
Subject:
Religion

...Erikson , Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (New York, 1958) , reissued 1993. 34. For this see Volker Leppin , “God in Luther’s Life and Thought: The Lasting Ambivalence,” in The Global Luther: A Theologian for Modern Times , ed. Christine Helmer (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009), 82–95. 1. Melanchthon, Praefatio (CR 6,156). 2. Jens Bulisch , “Wie alt ist Martin Luther geworden? Zum Geburtsjahr 1482 oder 1484,” Luther Jahrbuch 77 (2010): 29–39 ; and Reinhart Staats , “Luthers Geburtsjahr 1484,” in his Protestanten in der deutschen Geschichte...

Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology  

Zachary Purvis

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Religion

... Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology Luther and the Meanings of Protestantism “One might call our age, the age of monuments,” Eisleben’s superintendent, Christian Berger, declaimed in 1817 . “How could such an age forget one for Luther?” 1 Indeed, it did not. While Friedrich Wilhelm III, the Prussian monarch, laid the cornerstone of the grand Luther monument in Wittenberg on November 1, 1817 , the second day of the three-day tercentenary celebration of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, Luther himself also left a “living monument” for the 19th century: his...

Martin Luther and Relational Thinking  

Risto Saarinen

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...represented by Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Bultmann, it often creates a bridge to Sören Kierkegaard’s thought, which is critical of seemingly objectivistic metaphysics. 6 During the 1950s and 1960s, Friedrich Gogarten and Wilfried Joest also interpreted Luther’s theology in a relational manner. In the case of Gogarten, the link to existential philosophy is evident. 7 In his study of Luther’s ontology of personhood, Joest takes over the claims of Ebeling and employs them to create a systematic interpretation of Luther’s theological anthropology. In this venture, Joest...

Martin Luther and Systematic Theology  

Paul R. Hinlicky

Published Online:
Dec 2016
Subject:
Religion

...Marc Lienhard , Martin Luther: Witness to Jesus Christ, Stages and Themes of the Reformer’s Christology , trans. Edwin H. Robertson (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1982). 3. Jan Lindhardt , Martin Luther: Knowledge and Mediation in the Renaissance , Texts and Studies in Religion 29 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1986) ; and Timothy P. Dost , Renaissance Humanism in Support of the Gospel in Luther’s Early Correspondence: Taking All Things Captive (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001) . This prioritization of grammar over dialectic in distinction from Lombard’s Sentences is...

Natural Theology and Natural Law in Martin Luther  

Knut Alfsvåg

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Religion

...According to Bernd Wannenwetsch , “Luther’s Moral Theology,” in The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther , ed. Donald K. McKim (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 120–135 , s. 129, “good deeds exist ‘enhypostatically’ in faith.” 16. WA 5:168, 1–4. On this aspect of Luther’s thought, see further Sammeli Juntunen , Der Begriff des Nichts bei Luther in den Jahren von 1510 bis 1523 (Helsinki: Luther-Agricola-Gesellschaft, 1996). 17. WA 5:143, 21–144, 23. For a discussion of the significance of this passage within Luther’s theological development, see...

The Cross and the Theologia Crucis  

Robert C. Saler

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Religion

...would come to fruition throughout Luther’s oeuvre : 1. The target of theologia crucis ’s critical edge, as wielded by Luther, was the theo-political edifice comprised of the mutually reinforcing achievements of scholastic theology and the economic/political power of the Roman church. For Luther the theologian, the church’s abuses of power were inextricable from what he took to be the ideological underpinnings of the exercises of speculative inquiry and Aristotelian logic found in scholasticism; nowhere does the Reformer’s favored exegetical strategy of playing...

Martin Luther and Christian Hebraism  

Stephen G. Burnett

Published Online:
Sep 2016
Subject:
Religion

...and the Papacy, 1515–1535,” in Biblical Humanism and Scholasticism in the Age of Erasmus , ed. Erika Rummel (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008), 241–247. 11. Johannes Reuchlin , Reuchlin Briefwechsel , ed. Stefan Rhein , Matthias Dall’Asta and Gerald Dörmer (4 vols.; Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Fromann-Holzboog, 2000–2011), 2: 35, ll. 29–30, no. 138 . 12. Burnett, Christian Hebraism , 190–194. 13. Ibid. , 23–24. 14. Ibid. , 30–34. 15. Siegfried Raeder , “The Exegetical and Hermeneutical Work of Martin Luther,” in Hebrew Bible/Old Testament:...

Jesus Christ in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Johannes Zachhuber

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Religion

...arguing that this did not vitiate the need for the body of Christ to be whole in one place. Luther eventually adopted this line of argument as well and has therefore been said to have “called in the aid of Occam’s scholasticism” (Harnack 64 ) in his dispute with Zwingli. This, however, is true only to an extent. Luther’s position ultimately derived from his tenet of the irrevocable nature of God’s union with humanity in the incarnation. The “right hand of the Father,” he suggested, must be everywhere, like the divinity itself. If therefore Christ was at the right hand...

Martin Luther and Ontology  

Dennis Bielfeldt

Published Online:
Oct 2016
Subject:
Religion

...: “Martin Luther was a nominalist. There is no doubt about that.” Ockhamists Bartholomaeus Arnoldi de Usingen and Jodocus Trutvetter were important members of the Erfurt faculty. See White, Luther as Nominalist , 27. 47. WA 6:195, 4f: “I demand arguments and not authorities. Otherwise why would I contradict my own school, namely the Ockhamists and the Moderna which I have absorbed completely” (my translation). 48. Oswald Bayer , “Philosophical Modes of Thought of Luther’s Theology as an Object of Inquiry” in The Devil’s Whore: Reason and Philosophy in the...

Mysticism in Martin Luther’s Development and Thoughts  

Volker Leppin

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Religion

... Mysticism in Martin Luther’s Development and Thoughts Mysticism The term mysticism was coined in the context of modern Christian theology in the 18th century. However, the phenomenon itself occurs in Asian religions as well as in the traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This observation makes a definition of the term even more difficult. Several approaches have been taken, some of them based on etymological reflections. While a deduction from the Greek term μυστήριον ‎, “mystery,” does not seem to take us very far, the term μύω ‎, “close...

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