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empires that marginalized the Mediterranean as a whole. Fernand Braudel, in his history of the Mediterranean in the era of King Philip II of Spain, would make clear that common Mediterranean history lived on, even if the sea itself was no longer the only focus of world history. Discussion of the Literature Before the advent of Mediterranean studies, medievalists in the lands bordering the western Mediterranean often followed a piecemeal, nation-centric approach, largely in the service of national myth-making. This myth of the medieval past has been crucial to the

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Iberian Peninsula poses one of the key difficulties for the study of the medieval Western Mediterranean. The Andalusi archive (and that of Sepharad) were destroyed in the long process of cultural conquest and colonization. The cultural, religious, and linguistic conversion of so many towns and cities provides a great historiographical challenge. Finds such as the Cairo Geniza (a cache of mundane documents including correspondence from the medieval period), is truly rare for the medieval Mediterranean generally, and for a place like al-Andalus especially. As a result, the

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Ricardo García-Herrera and David Barriopedro

the little ice age and medieval climate anomaly. Science , 326 , 1256–1260. Marcos, M. , & Tsimplis, M. N. (2008). Comparison of AOGCMs in the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century. Journal of Geophysical Research , 113 , C12028. Mariotti, A. , & Dell’Aquila, A. (2012). Decadal climate variability in the Mediterranean region: Roles of large-scale forcings and regional processes. Climate Dynamics , 38 , 1129–1145. Mariotti, A. , Struglia, M. V. , Zeng, N. , & Lau, K.-M. (2002a). The hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region and implications

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fundamental research into Mediterranean erosion 16 produced a more sophisticated picture: most soil loss was due to rare and unusual weather, “extreme climatic events,” which then had greater or lesser impact depending on how much of the landscape had been cleared by human activity. These “events” were typically commoner during longer periods of climatic divergence from the Mediterranean norm, but they could also occur randomly as a byproduct of the Mediterranean climate. Thus, even in Classical Greek and Hellenistic times, when a moderate Mediterranean climate dominated

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Enslaved Africans in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia Slavery in the Christian-Western Mediterranean (6th–15th Centuries) In the medieval and early modern Christian-western Mediterranean, slavery was concentrated mainly in the cities. From the middle of the 15th century onward, Black African slaves became more numerous as a consequence of the impact of the early Atlantic slave trade on the Mediterranean, especially in the Iberian Peninsula. During the Middle Ages, slavery developed in three stages, and enslaved sub-Saharan men and women were present

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given chronology in Mediterranean history. Muslims of Medieval Latin Christendom by Catlos, Sea of the Caliphs: The Mediterranean in the Medieval Islamic World by Picard (translated by Elliott), and The Near West: Medieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the Second Axial Age by Fromherz are examples of such scholarship. The expansive nature of these works tends to preclude the detailed study of individual interactions between Italy, Sicily, and North Africa but nonetheless situates these geographies in the Mediterranean-wide context in which

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(1947): 231–260. Eleuteri, Paolo. Storia della tradizione manoscritta di Museo. Pisa: Giardini Editori, 1981. Eleuteri, Paolo. “Musaeus.” In Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum. Medieval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries. Annotated Lists and Guides , vol. 10. Edited by G. Dinkova-Brunn et al., 165–238. Rome: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2014. Gelzer, Thomas. “Bemerkungen zu Sprache und Text des Epikers Musaios.” Museum Helveticum 24 (1967): 129–148 and 25 (1968): 11–47, Knaack, Georg. “Hero und Leander.” Festgabe

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The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II , trans. Siân Reynolds, 2 vols. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Peregrine Horden and Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000); and David Abulafia, The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 59. Brian Catlos, Muslims of Medieval Latin Christendom, c. 1050–1614 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014); Allen Fromherz, The Near West: Medieval North

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Ian Morris

cemeteries The organization of a formal cemetery, as a space reserved exclusively for the disposal of the dead , was an important dimension of the social definition of the ancient city. Burial within the settlement had been common in many parts of the Mediterranean world in the early iron age, but after the 8th cent. bce it was rare. Cemeteries normally lined the roads leading away from cities. They usually consisted of numerous small grave-plots, which were rarely used for more than two or three generations, although some cemeteries, such as the Ceramicus at

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Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2012). 10. Daniel Hobbins , Authorship and Publicity Before Print: Jean Gerson and the Transformation of Late Medieval Learning (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 16. 11. Elizabeth Eisenstein , The Printing Press as an Agent of Change , 2 vols. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980). 12. Eltjo Buringh , Manuscript Production in the Latin West: Explorations with a Global Database (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012), 261. 13. Frans van Liere , An Introduction to the Medieval Bible (Cambridge

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economics interpretation of the late medieval Hanse. Working Paper, European Historical Economics Society Conference, Geneva 2009. Gelderblom, O. (2003). The governance of early modern trade: The case of Hans Thijs, 1556–1611. Enterprise and Society , 4 (4), 606–639. Goldberg, J. (2012a). Trade and institutions in the medieval Mediterranean: The Geniza merchants and their business world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Goldberg, J. (2012b). The use and abuse of the Geniza mercantile letter. Journal of Medieval History , 38 , 127–154. Gonzáles

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in Egyptian mummies from the 2nd millennium bce. 12 And the disease would, after the medieval period, be successfully transmitted to the Americas with the massive importation of slaves from sub-Saharan West Africa. But aside from a few ecological niches where it was able to take hold (such as the swamplands surrounding Rome), falciparum “epidemics” seem to have died out quickly in the ancient and medieval Mediterranean. 13 It would seem, then, that for the history of medieval Eurasia, vivax was likely the most influential form of malarial disease. Its effects in

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Neville Morley

Antiquities Journal 75 (1995): 71–105. Malanima, P. “Energy Consumption in the Roman World.” In The Ancient Mediterranean Environment Between Science and History. Edited by W. V. Harris , 13–36. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Raepsaet, G. Attelages antiques. Jougs et jouguets. 2d ed. Brussels: Groeninghe Uitgeverij/Drukkerij BVBA, 2016. Veal, R. “Fuelling Ancient Mediterranean Cities: A Framework for Charcoal Research.” In The Ancient Mediterranean Environment between Science and History. Edited by W.V. Harris , 37–58. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Wikander, Ö.

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mills  

Kevin Greene

supplemented by windmills from the 12th cent. ce. Water-mills driven by a horizontal wheel that does not require gears were particularly suitable for small irregular Mediterranean watercourses, but larger turbines placed at the bottom of cylindrical shafts were fed by larger rivers in Roman North Africa. Hand-powered rotary mills always remained common in domestic settings, in contrast to the medieval period, when they were frequently banned in order to ensure custom for manorial water-mills or windmills. Bibliography L. A. Moritz , Grain-mills and Flour in Classical

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tin  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

the Erzgebirge (cf. Scymnus 493) and western Europe. Small quantities were mined in Etruria ( see etruscans ) in pre-Roman times, and tin was worked at * Cirrha near * Delphi. The * Phoenicians probably controlled the Spanish tin through their settlements in the western Mediterranean. The colony of * Massalia gave the Greeks access to supplies in northern Europe and possibly Cornwall via the Rhône valley. The mythical source of tin was the * Cassiterides. There is ample evidence for the Roman pursuit of tin, including the expedition recalled by * Strabo

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Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Berliner Studien für klassische Philologie und Archaeologie v. 2 (1886). Medieval compilations, probably based on ancient material now lost: P. Pansier , Collectio ophthalmologica Veterum Auctorum (1903), (fasc. vii ps.-Galen, De oculis ). Fragments of the canon of ophthalmology, written by the Herophilean Demosthenes (1st cent. ce ) and dependent on Herophilus' book on eye diseases, collected J. Hirschberg , Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin (1918–19). Concerning a medieval translation of Herophilean Demosthenes, M. Wellmann , Hermes, Zeitschrift

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Roxani Eleni Margariti

Brill, 2008. Goldberg, Jessica. Trade and Institutions in the Medieval Mediterranean: The Geniza Merchants and Their Business World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Hansen, Valerie. The Silk Road: A New History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Jacobs, Martin. Reorienting the East: Jewish Travelers to the Medieval Muslim World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. Lambourn, Elizabeth A. Abraham ’ s Luggage: A Social Life of Things in the Medieval Indian Ocean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

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Peregrine Horden

14th century than in the 6th, so the comparison, in terms of plague epidemiology, is inexact. Estimates of cumulative mortality as the early medieval pandemic struck repeatedly over two centuries must be even more speculative. Specific plague mortality is hidden within a longer-term decline of perhaps as much as 50 percent in numbers of settlements and population across much of north-western Europe and the western Mediterranean, and this decline will have had multiple causes. The effects of numerous and rapid deaths on society are most readily detectible in the Byzantine

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Giusto Traina

antique Ravenna (a precursor, after a fashion, of mediaeval Venice) was also criticized, from a conservative point of view, in a letter of Sidonius Apollinaris ( ep. 1.8.2f). Marshes were also present in Western Europe, from the lagoons and the étangs in the south, attested to by Avienus’s Ora maritima , to the marshes in central and northern Gaul, largely attested to by Caesar (e.g., Avaricum: Caes. Gal. 7.15.5 , Gallia Belgica: Caes. Gal. 6.5.4 ). Avienus also mentions several marshes on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. In Roman literature, there is a cliché

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Alexandros Tsakos

renowned Christian kingdom of medieval Nubia. In effect, this made Warsaw—specifically its university, museum, and Polish Centre for Mediterranean Archaeology—the center of medieval Nubian studies. The work of Michalowski’s successors in the field, Stefan Jakobielski, Wlodzimierz Godlewski, Bogdan Zurawski, Adam Łajtar, and Artur Obluski, has been extremely fruitful. Apart from the material from Faras and Old Dongola, the Polish archaeological missions have made several major contributions: They have unearthed the impressive medieval monument at Banganarti and the