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of South Africa were also publishing on sport, circulating work that critiqued apartheid sport and demonstrated the intersection of politics and sport in the country. 83 The establishment of both African studies and sport history as fields of scholarly inquiry saw broader convergence between the two in the 1980s. Historians were finding that sport, akin to dance performances and the arts, provided a set of sources through which to examine the complex and multidimensional nature of African pasts. 84 Signaling this was Sport in Africa , a collection of essays published

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Itamar Dubinsky

terms and abbreviations when referring to the application of sport as a tool for development: Sport-in-development; Sport for Development and Peace (SFD); Development through Sport (DTS); Sport for Development; sport-for-development (SFD). This article will apply the latter term and abbreviation. 7. Fred Coalter, “The Politics of Sport-for-Development: Limited Focus Programmes and Broad Gauge Problems?” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 45, no. 3 (2010): 295–314. 8. United Nations, Sport as a Tool for Development and Peace: Towards Achieving the

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Andrew C. Billings and Fei Qiao

(1982). Cohesiveness in sport groups: Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4 , 123–138. Carron, A. V. (1988). Group dynamics in sport: Theoretical and practical issues. London, ON: Spodym. Chambers, E. (2014, October 22). “It’s rape”: Sayreville High School players face charges of abusive hazing. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-echochambers-29716923. Chelladurai, P. (1993). Leadership. In R. N. Singer , M. Murphey , & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 647–671)

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Martin Turner and Marc Jones

the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport Psychology , 10 , 45–61. Burton, D. (1990). Multimodal stress management in sport: Current status and future directions. In G. Jones & L. Hardy (Eds.), Stress and performance in sport (pp. 171–201). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley. Callow, N. , Hardy, L. , & Hall, C. R. (2001). The effect of a motivational general-mastery imagery intervention on the sport confidence of four high level junior badminton players. Research Quarterly for Sport & Exercise Psychology , 72 , 389–400. Canon, W. B. (1932)

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Anthony P. Kontos and Jamie McAllister-Deitrick

R. (2004). Mechanisms of head injuries in elite football. British Journal of Sports Medicine , 38 (6), 690–696. Asplund, C. A. , McKeag, D. B. , & Olsen, C. H. (2004). Sport-related concussion: Factors associated with prolonged return to play. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine , 14 (6), 339–343. Bloom, G. A. , Horton, A. S. , McCrory, P. , & Johnston, K. M. (2004). Sport psychology and concussion: New impacts to explore. British Journal of Sports Medicine , 38 (5), 519–521. Brody, D. L. (2014). Concussion care manual. Oxford: Oxford University

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W. James Weese and P. Chelladurai

coaches), and executive leadership (i.e., sport managers). Future researchers should be excited about the recent developments in the emotional intelligence and servant leadership areas because they hold great promise for heightening clarity and informing leadership practice in many fields, including the sports domain. These thrusts, along with others like gender dynamics and leadership, leadership development through sport, and leadership succession planning in sport, will undoubtedly become the most popular areas of inquiry for sport leadership scholars in the next decade

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part of sport, and people bring their own religion into the sport environment. Religion in sport should not, however, be evaluated negatively. Sport can be a space for the presentation of religious values. When love is recognized as the greatest religious virtue, then such religious utilization of sport activities should be accepted as a positive aspect of sport by agnostics and atheists ( Jirásek, 2018 ). The most well-known interconnection of the instrumentalization of sport from a religious perspective is “Muscular Christianity,” which utilizes sport activities

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Psychological Responses to Sport Injury Introduction Inherent in sport participation is the risk of injury. Although the physical effects of sport injury (e.g., tissue damage, initiation of healing processes, increased body mass index and body fat percentage) are especially salient ( Myer et al., 2014; Prentice, 2011 ), sport injury can also have psychological consequences. Aspects of psychological functioning that can be affected by sport injury include pain, cognition, emotion, behavior, and readiness to return to sport. These aspects can be considered

Article

Michelle Sikes

times more support from government sport subsidies than its 18.6 million black population ( Lapchick, 1979 ). Organized opposition to apartheid in sport was forthcoming from the 1950s. The South African Sports Association (SASA), established in 1958 , and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC), founded in 1963 , pressured international sport federations to exclude South Africa’s all-white teams ( Booth, 1998 ). These groups presented non-racial sport as an alternative to sport controlled by all-white sport governing bodies grounded in apartheid

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Robert C. Eklund and J.D. Defreese

pediatrics physicians to limit and carefully monitor youth sport specialization effects because of potentially aversive mental and physical health effects ( Brenner & AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, 2016 ). An in-depth discussion of the potential risks (and benefits) of early sport specialization is beyond the scope of this commentary, but it should be noted that sport specialization is growing in importance in both sport science and popular culture. The potential impact over time of early sport specialization on the development of athlete burnout among

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Leslee A. Fisher and Lars Dzikus

concluded (p. 11). Based on a cultural sport psychology approach, SPCs could become an important puzzle piece in facilitating bullying-prevention and -intervention programs in sport. Conclusion Bullying in sport is a common and serious problem rooted in a complex interplay of micro- and macrolevel dynamics. All parties involved in sport have the ability to change the culture of sport and reduce harmful behaviors such as bullying. Given their specific training and opportunity to work directly with athletes and coaches, sport psychology consultants have particular

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Susan Brownell and Niko Besnier

in the form of values. Although seldom examined from this perspective, sport can contribute insights into the long-standing debate in anthropology about tensions between value and values. 1 Despite the fact that the nature of sport has undergone fundamental transformations over the centuries, this tension characterizes sport in the neoliberal era as much as in the ancient world. In societies in which a market economy dominates, sport can generate wealth in a number of ways. For example, sport and the sporting body can be commodified when they are assigned a value

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Judy L. Van Raalte and Andrew Vincent

research designs that include self-talk as part of a psychological skills intervention make it difficult to determine the unique effects of self-talk on sport performance. Research exploring the specific effects of self-talk on athletes’ and students’ performance on sport and sport-like tasks has also been conducted. Self-talk use has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the learning of sport skills, the performance of sport accuracy tasks, the performance of tasks that involve strength and power, and on endurance sports ( Masciana, Van Raalte, Brewer, Branton, & Coughlin

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Barbi Law, Phillip Post, and Penny McCullagh

(2001). Imagery in sport and exercise. In R. N. Singer , H. A. Hausenblas , & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (2d ed., pp. 529–549). New York: John Wiley. Hall, C. R. , Mack, D. E. , Paivio, A. , & Hausenblas, H. A. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the sport imagery questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology , 29 (1), 73–89. Hall, C. R. , Munroe-Chandler, K. J. , Cumming, J. , Law, B. , Ramsey, R. , & Murphy, L. (2009). Imagery and observational learning and their relationship to sport confidence.

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Glyn C. Roberts, Christina G. L. Nerstad, and P. Nicolas Lemyre

Hall, H. K. , & Byrne, A. T. J. (1988). Goal setting in sport: Clarifying recent anomalies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 10 , 184–198. Hall, H. K. , & Kerr, A. W. (1997). Motivational antecedents of precompetitive anxiety in youth sport. Sport Psychologist , 11 , 24–42. Hall, H. K. , & Kerr, A. W. (2001). Goal-setting in sport and physical activity. Tracing empirical developments and establishing conceptual direction. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 183–234). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Michelle D. Guerrero

to enhance the sport competence of young Special Olympics athletes. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity. Advance online publication. Cumming, J. , & Williams, S. E. (2013). Introducing the revised applied model of deliberate imagery use for sport, dance, exercise, and rehabilitation. Movement & Sport Sciences , 82 (4), 69–81. Guerrero, M. D. , Tobin, D. , Munroe-Chandler, K. J. , & Hall, C. R. (2015). Tigers and lions, oh my! Effect of a guided imagery intervention on children’s active play. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology ,

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Laura Healy, Alison Tincknell-Smith, and Nikos Ntoumanis

Journal of Sport Psychology in Action , 4 , 97–108. Hall, H. K. , & Kerr, A. W. (2001). Goal setting in sport and physical activity: Tracing empirical developments and establishing conceptual direction. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (2nd ed., pp.183–234). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Healy, L. C. , Ntoumanis, N. , & Duda, J. L. (2016). Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centred investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport , 19 , 1010–1014

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and Pacific Islanders as participants and spectators of sport. This oversight not only warps contemporary media representation of such athletes, but it also ignores the significant contributions and challenges of athletes like Kao Chow Li and their predecessors. As C. Richard King notes, “In fact, academic, commercial, and the media accounts have routinely erased, excluded, ignored, and otherwise made absent the Asian-American presence in sport.” 2 Asian American and Pacific Islander relations to American sport are best understood as a unique history defined by their

Article

Andrea Marzano, Marcelo Bittencourt, and Victor Melo

Memory of Africa and the Orient Mário Soares Foundation Angola Atlético Petróleos do Huambo Club Ferroviário Da Huila Sport Cabinda e Benfica—ANGOLA Sport Huambo e Benfica Sport Luanda e Benfica Sport Lubango e Benfica Cape Verde Associação Acadêmica do Mindelo Clube Desportivo Travadores Clube de Golfe São Vicente Clube Sportivo Mindelense Guinea Bissau Clube de Futebol Os Balantas Sport Bissau e Benfica União Desportiva Internacional de Bissau Mozambique Associação Académica de Maputo Clube Ferroviário da Beira

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Aidan Moran and John Toner

, & Hillman, C. H. (2001). The psychophysiology of sport. In R. N. Singer , H. A. Hausenblas , & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 362–386). New York, NY: Wiley. Hatzigeorgiadis, A. , Zourbanos, N. , Galanis, E. , & Theodorakis, Y. (2011). Self-talk and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 6 , 348–356. Hibbs, D. (2010). A conceptual analysis of clutch performances in competitive sports. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport , 37 , 47–59. Hill, D. M. , Hanton, S. , Matthews