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Bibliography expanded and updated to reflect recent research, and additional non-substantive textual revisions made throughout article.

Updated on 25 February 2019. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 15 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Although most policy is created as a series of processes, these processes differ considerably depending on which political actors are engaged. Knowledge of formal political system processes (rules, rule-making, promulgation of rules) and the informal political system processes (relationships, influence, negotiations) are necessary if one is to understand both how political systems work and how to begin to make the necessary changes if a relevant social justice goal is not being met.

Keywords: congressional committees, promulgation of rules, informal political process, rule-making process, policy analysis, policy evaluation

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