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date: 26 February 2024



  • Lawrence ShulmanLawrence ShulmanDr. Lawrence Shulman has done extensive research on the core helping skills in social work practice, group work, supervision, field instruction and child welfare. His recent publications include Interactional Supervision, 3rd ed., 2010, NASW Press; The Skills of Helping Individuals, Families, Groups and Communities, 7th ed., 2011, Cengage Publishers; and the Dynamics and Skills of Group Counseling, 2010, Cengage Publishers. He has published numerous articles including "The Clinical Supervisor-Practitioner Working Alliance: A Parallel Process," 2005, The Clinical Supervisor, (24); and "Developing Successful Therapeutic Relationships,” in print, Social Workers' Desk Reference, Oxford University Press. He is widely used as a training consultant in practice, supervision, and field instruction and currently directs a school violence prevention program in an Inner-city school. He is on editorial boards including The Social Work Dictionary, Social Work with Groups, The Journal of Teaching in Social Work, The Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, the Journal of Social Work (England) and Group Work (England). Dr. Shulman was selected for the Columbia University School of Social Work Alumni Hall of Fame in 2010 and received the Outstanding Contribution to Social Work Practice with Groups award in 2007 from the Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups.


The article addresses the four major content areas of supervision, including direct practice, professional impact, job management, and continued learning. It also examines supervision models and current challenges including the adoption of evidenced-based practices, a movement away from process supervision, supervision of social workers by other professionals, advances in technology, inter and intra-cultural issues, and changes in the NASW Code of Ethics.


  • Administration and Management
  • Clinical and Direct Practice
  • Ethics and Values
  • Populations and Practice Settings
  • Research and Evidence-Based Practice

Updated in this version

Multiple sections lengthened and added to include updated literature on supervision.

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