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Continuing Education  

Kimberly Strom-Gottfried

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Continuing education (CE) refers to an array of opportunities by which professionals can augment existing knowledge and skills. CE is essential for professional competence, career ... More

Contracting Out of Social Services  

Hillel Schmid and Yeheskel “Zeke” Hasenfeld

Contracting out of social services is defined as the purchase of services by government agencies from for-profit and nonprofit organizations. It has a long history beginning with the ... More

Council on Social Work Education  

Julia M. Watkins and Jessica Holmes

Published Online:
Jun 2013
The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) provides leadership in social work education through faculty development, research, and accreditation of baccalaureate and master's social work ... More

Counseling Older Adult Victims of Ageism in the Workplace  

Margo A. Jackson

Despite the significant life and work experiences that a growing number of older adults have to contribute to the workforce, pervasive ageism operates in overt and covert ways to ... More


Susan C. Harnden

Published Online:
Jun 2013
This entry discusses the evolution of the field of couples counseling from an auxiliary service provided through a variety of professional disciplines to a well-established field defined ... More

Courtney, Catherine  

Carole Zugazaga

Published Online:
Jul 2013
Catherine “Kate” Courtney (née Potter), Baroness Courtney of Penwirth (1847–1929), was a British social worker, political activist, and suffragist who actively campaigned for world peace. ... More

Coyle, Grace Longwell  

Jean K. Quam

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Grace Longwell Coyle (1892–1962) was the first to develop a scientific approach to group work practice. She was president of the National Conference of Social Work, the American ... More

Crime and Criminal Behavior  

Margaret E. Severson

Published Online:
Jun 2013
This entry includes contemporary definitions of crime, theoretical ideas about the etiology of criminal behavior, and information about the methods used to estimate crime rates in the ... More

Criminal Justice: Overview  

Rudolph Alexander Jr.

The criminal justice system traces its roots to ancient times. When the 13 original colonies were formed, they brought many of the laws and legal processes from England. Traditionally, the ... More

Criminal Justice: Criminal Courts  

Diane S. Young

Published Online:
Jun 2013
This entry on the adult court system in the United States discusses the foundation, structure, and authority of courts at federal, state, and local levels. The role of criminal courts, the ... More

Criminal Justice: Corrections  

C. Aaron McNeece

The United States has more than 7 million adults under correctional supervision, with more than 2 million incarcerated. The history and theories behind incarceration are described, along ... More

Crisis Interventions  

Albert R. Roberts

Crisis intervention has been used to help millions of at-risk and vulnerable social work clients throughout the world. Acute crisis-inducing situations range from the sudden loss of a ... More

Crossover Youth  

Wendy Haight and Min Hae Cho

Published Online:
Oct 2017
“Crossover youth” are maltreated youth who have engaged in delinquency. They are of particular concern to child welfare, juvenile justice, and other professionals because of their risks ... More

Cultural Competence  

Terry L. Cross

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Cultural competence emerged as a concept in the 1980s, took form as a set of organizational, educational, advocacy, policy, and practice constructs in the 1990s, and has since matured into ... More

Cultural Competence and Critical Consciousness in Social Work Pedagogy  

Ronald Pitner and Izumi Sakamoto

For social workers, developing cultural competence is a necessary hallmark for interacting with our increasingly diverse and complex world. Developing cultural competence, however, ... More

Cultural Competency in Mental-Health Services  

Jun Sung Hong and Wynne Sandra Korr

Since the 1980s, cultural competency has increasingly been recognized as a salient factor in the helping process, which requires social-work professionals to effectively integrate cultural ... More

Cultural Equity and the Displacement of Othering  

Rhea Almeida

This article proposes social equity as a paradigm to guide social work practice and education. “Cultural equity” encompasses the multiplicity of personal, social, and institutional ... More

Cultural Institutions and the Arts  

Lorraine Gutiérrez and Mark Creekmore

Published Online:
Jun 2013
The arts and cultural institutions can be powerful resources for promoting the development of individuals and communities. Social work agencies and cultural institutions share similar ... More

Culturally Competent Practice  

Doman Lum

This article defines cultural competence and culturally competent practice and focuses on cultural awareness, knowledge acquisition, and skill development as key components. It traces the ... More

Culture and Identity in Generic Social Work  

Ramona W. Denby and Allison Bowmer

The notion of culture, while vast, is often conceptualized through an examination of gender, race, and ethnicity; class and economics; religion; sexual orientation; and even age. Culture ... More