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Sexual Assault  

Judy L. Postmus

Sexual assault or rape affects millions of women and men in the United States; however, it is only in the last 30 years that it is being considered a social problem. During this period, ... More

Sexual Harassment  

Sondra J. Fogel

Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination as well as a complex social issue with psychological implications for both those who are harassed and those who perpetrate the harassment. ... More

Sexual Orientation  

William J. Hall

Sexual orientation is a multidimensional phenomenon involving a person’s sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual orientation identity. Sexual orientation patterns may remain ... More

Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS in India  

Sunny Sinha

The risk of HIV infection looms large among male, female, and transgender sex workers in India. Several individual, sociocultural, and structural-environmental factors enhance the risk of ... More

Shyne, Ann Wentworth  

Edmund Sherman and William J. Reid

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Ann Wentworth Shyne (1914–1995) was a founding member of the influential Social Work Research Group, which promoted research on social work practice. Her work had a considerable impact on ... More

Sieder, Violet M.  

David G. Gil

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Violet Sieder (1909–1988) was a social welfare educator and leader. She taught social planning, community organization, and rehabilitation at the Florence Heller Graduate School, Brandeis ... More

Simkhovitch, Mary Kingsbury  

Larraine M. Edwards

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch (1867–1951) founded the Greenwich House social settlement in New York City. She was professor in social economy at Barnard College and associate professor in ... More

Single Parents  

Virginia C. Strand

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Between 1990 and 2003, the single-parent family continued to emerge as a major family form in the United States. Individuals come to single parenthood through different routes (divorce, ... More

Single-System Designs  

Joel Fischer and John G. Orme

Single-system designs (SSDs) are a family of user-friendly empirical procedures that can be used to help professionals to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the services they ... More

Sleep  

Jessica M. Black

Published Online:
Feb 2017
Sleep is required for healthy and adaptive neurobehavioral and psychosocial functioning throughout the life course. Sleep is restorative, facilitates memory consolidation, improves immune ... More

Slums and Affordable Housing  

Bonnie Young Laing

By the year 2035, slums may become the primary living environment for the world’s urban dwellers. This entry explores key definitions, causes, and characteristics of slums in the global ... More

Smalley, Ruth Elizabeth  

Ram A. Cnaan

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Ruth Elizabeth Smalley (1903–1979) was an advocate of the functional approach to social work. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of the School of Social Work at the University of ... More

Smith, Zilpha Drew  

Larraine M. Edwards

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Zilpha Drew Smith (1852–1926) was a social worker who devised a systematic approach to screening and investigating relief applications by using friendly visitors. In 1904 became associate ... More

Snyder, Mitchell “Mitch”  

Frederick A. DiBlasio and John R. Belcher

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Subject:
Biographies
Mitchell “Mitch” Snyder (1943–1990) was an activist who engaged in nonviolent civil disobedience. He was a member of the Creative Community for Non-Violence, which helps cities to provide ... More

Social Capital  

Silvia Domínguez

In social work, social capital is linked to both the prevention and treatment of mental and physical health. This concept has also been incorporated in the development of empowering ... More

Social Development  

Mizanur R. Miah

Published Online:
Jun 2013
Social development is an all-inclusive concept connoting the well-being of the people, the community, and the society. The term gained popularity in the 1920s when it began as a mass ... More

Social Empathy  

Elizabeth A. Segal

This entry defines and explains the concept and trait of social empathy and the relationship to interpersonal empathy. Both concepts are explained using the latest cognitive neuroscience ... More

Social Enterprise  

Rukshan Fernando

Social enterprise is a management practice that integrates principles of private enterprise with social sector goals and objectives. Social enterprise is a relatively new type of social ... More

Social Exclusion and Inclusion  

Karen Lyons and Nathalie Huegler

The term social exclusion achieved widespread use in Europe from the late twentieth century. Its value as a concept that is different from poverty, with universal relevance, has since been ... More

Social Impact Assessment  

Paula T. Morelli and Jon Kei Matsuoka

Social impact assessment (SIA) is the process of analyzing (predicting, evaluating and reflecting) and managing the intended and unintended consequences on the human environment of planned ... More

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