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Ageism in the Workplace  

Patricia Brownell

Older workers make important contributions to the workplace, its productivity, and its culture. Work remains important for older adults for financial security, to give meaning to later ... More

American Social Security System  

Eric R. Kingson, Dana Bell, and Sarah Shive

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry examines why our nation’s Social Security system was built, what it does, and what must be done to maintain and improve this foundational system for current and future ... More

Capacity Development and Building  

DeBrenna LaFa Agbényiga

Online publication date:
Dec 2013
As a profession, social workers must understand and work well within the realms of capacity development. This understanding is important because it provides a foundation for working at the ... More

Charitable Foundations  

Helmut K. Anheier and Marcus Lam

Foundations are private institutions for public benefit. With a long history that reaches back to antiquity, foundations are experiencing a renaissance and increased attention paid to them ... More

Contracting Out of Social Services  

Hillel Schmid and Yeheskel “Zeke” Hasenfeld

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Contracting out of social services is defined as the purchase of services by government agencies from for-profit and nonprofit organizations. It has a long history beginning with the ... More

Disaster Preparedness for Organizations  

Becky S. Corbett

Online publication date:
Jul 2014
Social workers are well trained to respond to natural and man-made disasters. They use their strengths-based perspective to assist individuals, families, organizations, and communities ... More

Foster Care  

Joyce E. Everett

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Social work has long been involved in child foster care. Though its initial involvement de-emphasized the importance of infant–caregiver attachment, Bowlby’s theory of attachment is ... More

Fundraising in Human Service Nonprofits  

Kirsten A. Grønbjerg

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Of the 1.6 million tax-exempt organizations registered with the IRS in August 2016, about one fourth are human service nonprofits, including about 290,000 charities with about $230 billion ... More

Hunger, Nutrition, and Food Programs  

Kristine Siefert

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Food insecurity and hunger are serious problems around the world, with an estimated 870 million people chronically undernourished. The vast majority of these people—an estimated 14.9%—live ... More

International Social Welfare: Organizations and Activities  

Doreen Elliott

The major international governmental and nongovernmental organizations and their activities are discussed with reference to their global co-coordinating, advocacy, service, and research ... More

Medicaid and Medicare  

Victoria M. Rizzo and Rebekah Kukowski

In 1965, Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act were passed, creating Medicare and Medicaid and laying the foundation for US healthcare policy. Medicare was originally created to ... More

Organizations and Associations  

Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, Michael M. Sinclair, and Bradford W. Sheafor

Professions are developed and maintained through various professional organizations and associations. As social work has evolved in terms of context and content, the professional membership ... More

Organizations and Governance  

Tom Holland

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Most social service organizations are identified by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service as nonprofits, designated as 501c3 organizations. They are overseen by governing boards, which ensure ... More

Outcome Measures in Human Services  

Jennifer L. Magnabosco

Throughout history, measuring outcomes has been a goal and priority in the human services. This entry chronicles the history of outcomes measurement in the human services in the United ... More

Privatization  

Andrew Dobelstein

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Privatizing social services has taken a new turn as America enters the 21st century. Although it was once possible to separate private and public social services, the growing trend toward ... More

Rationale for Innovation, Intrapreneurship, and Entrepreneurship in Social Work Practice  

Monica Nandan and Gokul Mandayam

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Social workers possess several skills, values, and perspectives that enable them to practice as social innovators, intrapreneurs, and entrepreneurs. Given the complex, dynamic, and ... More

Social Enterprise  

Rukshan Fernando

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Social enterprise is a management practice that integrates principles of private enterprise with social sector goals and objectives. Social enterprise is a relatively new type of social ... More

Social Planning  

Jon Simon Sager

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Social planning emphasizes the application of rational problem-solving techniques and data-driven approaches to identify, determine, and help coordinate services for target populations. ... More

Social Services  

Philip R. Popple

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Formal or institutional social services began in the United States in the late 19th century as a response to problems that were rapidly increasing as a result of modernization. These ... More

Social Welfare Expenditures  

Richard Hoefer

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Understanding both public and private welfare expenditures is necessary to appreciate the full scope of a social welfare system. This entry examines spending in four major areas of social ... More

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