W. Patrick Sullivan
The psychosocial catastrophe that accompanies serious mental illness negatively impacts individual performance and success in all key life domains. A person-in-environment perspective, and with a traditional and inherent interest in consumer and community strengths, is well positioned to address psychiatric disabilities. This entry describes a select set of habilitation and rehabilitation services that are ideally designed to address the challenges faced by persons with mental illness. In addition, it is argued that emphasis on a recovery model serves as an important framework for developing effective interventions.
The role of disability rights has developed and evolved over the course of the United States’ history. The definition of disability has broadened as well as the pursuit for equal treatment, inclusion, and more accessible environments. Key pieces of legislation such as the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act, the Rehabilitation Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act demonstrate a course of steps toward these more empowering themes of independence for those with disabilities. Disability advocates are strong in their message of “nothing about us, without us.” The disability rights movement helped to propel culture shifts and has promoted inclusion of individuals with disabilities. Despite the intention of disability policy to move the nation to more accessible, inclusive, and less discriminatory environments, more work is still needed to support the rights of those with disabilities.
Rosalie A. Kane
Long-term care (LTC), also called long-term support services, refers to personal care and services for people of all ages who cannot perform daily activities unaided. This entry reviews trends across LTC settings—nursing homes, assisted living, and consumers' own homes, emphasizing efforts since 1990 to downsize nursing homes and expand community services, while transforming the remaining nursing home sector into caring communities with individualized services and improved living conditions. Key themes include sustaining a frontline work force, developing a cross-disability unified agenda, defining and assuring quality, and ethical issues in balancing safety and autonomy. Opportunities for social work leadership in LTC abound.