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African Americans: Immigrants of African Origin  

Fariyal Ross-Sheriff and Tamarah Moss-Knight

The number and percentage of immigrants and refugees from Africa to the United States have increased substantially since the mid-1990s. Though still a relatively small percentage of the ... More

Arab Americans  

Kristine J. Ajrouch

This entry defines the term Arab American, followed by a discussion of the two waves of immigration: before 1924 and post-1965. A demographic overview is presented next, drawing from data ... More

Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Immigrants in the United States  

Miriam Potocky and Mitra Naseh

This article presents introductory information on asylum seekers, refugees, and immigrants in the United States, including distinctions among them, major regions of origin, demographic, ... More

Ecological Social Work  

Uschi Bay

Ecological social work requires a shift in thinking for social workers because it does not place humans at the center of its concerns. Rather ecological social work puts the ... More

Global Community Practice for the Global Agenda  

Manohar Pawar and Marie Weil

This article presents an integrated perspective and framework for global practice towards achieving the Global Agenda. First, it presents the origin and current understanding of the Global ... More

Immigration Policy  

Uma A. Segal

Individuals and families from around the globe form a continuous stream of immigrants to the United States, with waiting lists for entry stretching to several years. Reasons for this ... More

Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Survival  

Priscilla A. Day

Indigenous people across the globe are struggling for the cultural survival of their families and communities. This article provides an overview of indigenous people across the world and ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Africa (Sub-Sahara)  

Kwaku Osei-Hwedie

Africa is one of the world's poorest regions and it faces numerous and complex challenges as it strives to achieve its development objectives. The main challenges relate to poverty and its ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Asia  

Ngoh Tiong Tan

Asia contains more than 60% of the world’s population and is the fastest growing economic region. However, it faces challenges, including poverty, HIV and AIDS, and human rights concerns. ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Australia and Pacific Islands  

Mel Gray and Kylie Agllias

Australia and Aotearoa-New Zealand are among the world's most “livable” countries, despite the increase in relative poverty and the negative effect of past policies on indigenous ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Caribbean  

Peta-Anne Baker

The Caribbean is a multiethnic, multilingual archipelago of island and mainland territories, with similar experiences of European colonialism and modern-day globalization. Inequality poses ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Central America  

Maria Julia

The social, political, and economic features of Central America are summarized and the impact of economic and political processes on the region is highlighted. Predominant global, ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Europe  

David N. Jones

Europe includes not only some of the most economically and socially developed countries in the world but also some of the poorest. Social work as a profession has been well established for ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Middle East and North Africa  

John R. Graham and Alean Al-Krenawi

North African and Middle Eastern nations have an 80-year history with social work, based on colonial, imported models of practice. There is some success in localizing social work to ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: North America  

Wes Shera

North America is one of the world's richest regions, and both the United States and Canada are ranked in the top 10 of the United Nations Human Development Index. However, poverty and ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: South America  

Irene Queiro-Tajalli

South America, a land of beauty, diversity, and socioeconomic disparity, is going through a profound identity search, redefining the government's role concerning the welfare of its people, ... More

Islamophobia  

Altaf Husain

Islamophobia is not a new term but it has become commonly used in the United States following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This entry provides an overview of the demographics of the Muslim ... More

Liberation-Based Practice  

Rhea Almeida, Diana Melendez, and José Miguel Paez

The process of decolonizing is a precursor to liberatory transformation and the foundation for the creation of liberation-based practices. Decolonizing strategies call for changing the ... More

Multiculturalism  

Eun-Kyoung Othelia Lee and Ruth McRoy

This entry defines the concept of multiculturalism and explains, from a historical and contemporary perspective, its evolution and significance in social work. The relationship between ... More

Research: Overview  

Tony Tripodi and Marina Lalayants

This entry reviews the state of social work research from the appearance of the social work research overview in the previous encyclopedia to the early 2010s. Social work research is ... More

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