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Bereavement, which is the circumstance of having experienced the death of a significant other, is associated with significant emotional, cognitive, spiritual, physical, and social disruption. Given its ubiquitous nature, nearly everyone is affected by bereavement at some point, and opportunities for social work intervention with the bereaved are many and varied. This entry provides a brief summary of our extant knowledge about bereavement including its theoretical underpinnings, psychosocial sequelae, and empirical evidence of related interventions.
Insoo Kim Berg, MSW (1934–2007), along with her husband, Steve de Shazer, was a primary developer of solution-focused brief therapy. She was a prolific author as well as a gifted clinician who traveled around the world inspiring and training professionals in this unique model.
Kenneth S. Carpenter
Margaret Berry (1915–2002) was Executive Director of the National Conference on Social Welfare from 1972 to 1979. She was actively involved in developing group work activities on an international basis.
Edward J. Mullen, Jennifer L. Bellamy, and Sarah E. Bledsoe
This entry describes best practices as these are used in social work. The term best practices originated in the organizational management literature in the context of performance measurement and quality improvement where best practices are defined as the preferred technique or approach for achieving a valued outcome. Identification of best practices requires measurement, benchmarking, and identification of processes that result in better outcomes. The identification of best practices requires that organizations put in place quality data collection systems, quality improvement processes, and methods for analyzing and benchmarking pooled provider data. Through this process, organizational learning and organizational performance can be improved.
Mary McLeod Bethune (1875–1955) was a teacher committed to the education and development of Black women. Her role as president of the National Association of Colored Women led to the founding of the National Council of Negro Women in 1935.
Lord William Beveridge (1879–1963) was one of the founders of the British welfare state. His report of 1942 formed the basis for the Labour Government's social policies between 1945 and 1950 and fostered the creation of Britain's national health services.
Larry W. Foster
Bioethics and biomedical ethics are defined. Common bioethical concepts, exemplary moral values, fundamental ethical principles, general ethical theories, and approaches to moral reasoning are reviewed. The scope of topics and issues, the nature of practice situations in bioethics, and social work roles on organizational bodies that monitor and respond to bioethical issues are summarized, as are trends in bioethics. Practice contexts, from beginning to end of life, are highlighted with biopsychosocial facts, ethical questions and issues, and implications for social work—a profession uniquely positioned in giving bioethics a social context.
Laura S. Abrams
This entry explores past and present social-scientific lenses concerning bisexuality. The author traces the rise of a bisexual movement in the 1970s to present times. The entry concludes by addressing social work's limited contributions to understanding bisexuality and proposes trends and directions for future practice and research with diverse groups of bisexuals.
Eileen Blackey (1902–1979) was a social worker and consultant who helped establish schools of social work in Hawaii and at Hebrew University in Israel. She was Dean of the School of Social Work at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Adrienne Asch and Nancy R. Mudrick
Significant visual impairment affects ~8 million Americans, 1.8 million of whom are blind and must find nonvisual methods of performing life roles. Social workers should not assume that people with visual impairment or blindness are unable to work, have families, or engage in sports or travel, or that vision limitations are necessarily a part of every presenting problem. Key roles for social workers include assisting in access to services and training and advocacy to combat discrimination and exclusion.
Frances Feldman and Haluk Soydan
Emory Bogardus (1882–1973) established the first Sociology Department in the West in 1915. His study on “social distance” is still used to examine cultural, ethnic, and religious attitudes. In 1920 he founded Alpha Kappa Delta, the sociology honor society.
The historical development of the borderline concept is traced up through the development of the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Treatments for BPD during the 1970s and 1980s are discussed, including the object relations theories of Margaret Mahler and James Masterson, as well as trauma theory described by Judith Herman. Three evidence-based treatments (EBTs) that have emerged from the 1990s to the present time are described, as well as findings from brain imaging techniques and how new EBTs and neuroimaging have changed the view of this disorder.
Ivan Böszörményi-Nagy (1920–2007) was a Hungarian-American psychiatrist and one of the founders of the field of family therapy. He emigrated from Hungary to the United States in 1950.
Jean K. Quam
Charles Loring Brace (1826–1890) was a writer, minister, and social reformer. He worked with homeless children, initiating child welfare services, and was the founder and executive director of the Children's Aid Society of New York City.
George Brager (1922–2003) was a social work educator, administrator, and social activist who worked primarily in New York City. He developed innovative community programs which had national impact and was a founding director of Mobilization for Youth.
Jean K. Quam
Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge (1866–1948) was an educator and social activist, based in Chicago. She taught the first course in public welfare administration and developed a postgraduate curriculum in social work, introducing the case method as the mode of instruction.
Jennifer Briar-Bonpane and Katharine Briar-Lawson
Scott Briar (1926–1998) was a practitioner, researcher, scholar, and leader who championed research-informed practice and helped shape modern casework. He was Dean of Washington School of Social Work, edited Social Work, and served as a reviewer for NIMH.
Jean K. Quam
Zebulon Reed Brockway (1827–1920) was a prison reformer primarily associated with New York State Reformatory in Elmira. A believer in rehabilitation rather than punishment, he initiated a program to prepare prisoners for release. His innovations met with considerable official opposition.
Sadye L. M. Logan
Willie G. Brown, later known as W. Gertrude Brown (1888–1939), was a phenomenal woman and an activist for racial justice and the rights of women and children.
Jean K. Quam
Frank John Bruno (1874–1955) was an administrator and educator whose expertise and leadership influenced American social work. Working initially with the Associated Charities, he moved into academia, becoming president of two different bodies of social workers.