Eleanor L. Brilliant
Volunteer activity is linked to the concept of American democracy; it is also the source of early social work in the nineteenth century. Volunteering is action taken by personal choice and generally without expectation of pay; it takes many forms. In 2006, it represented over 8 billion hours of organization-related service in the United States. There are costs as well as benefits in volunteering. In the human services, volunteers have a variety of roles from serving on leadership Boards to providing direct service; tension may exist between professional staff and volunteers, and volunteer management is important for effective use of volunteers.
Social enterprise is a management practice that integrates principles of private enterprise with social sector goals and objectives. Social enterprise is a relatively new type of social work macro practice and includes a variety of sustainable economic activities designed to yield social impact for individuals, families, and communities. Despite the increased popularity of social enterprise scholarship, social work is visibly absent from it. Social enterprise is a field that promises to harness the energy and enthusiasm of commercial entrepreneurship combined with macro practice to address many long-standing social issues. Despite being a popular practice phenomenon, empirical research on social enterprise is still quite nascent, indeed: only a few empirical articles on the subject have thus far appeared in academic journals, and even fewer in social work journals. This article provides an overview of social enterprise, and the potential for synergy between social enterprise, the social work profession, and education.
The article addresses the four major content areas of supervision, including direct practice, professional impact, job management, and continued learning. It also examines supervision models and current challenges including the adoption of evidenced-based practices, a movement away from process supervision, supervision of social workers by other professionals, advances in technology, inter and intra-cultural issues, and changes in the NASW Code of Ethics.