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African Americans: Overview  

Larry E. Davis, John M. Wallace Jr., and Trina R. Williams Shanks

African Americans have been a part of the nation's history for nearly four hundred years. Although their history includes the forced imposition of chattel slavery, the strict enforcement ... More

African Americans: Immigrants of African Origin  

Fariyal Ross-Sheriff and Tamarah Moss-Knight

The number and percentage of immigrants and refugees from Africa to the United States have increased substantially since the mid-1990s. Though still a relatively small percentage of the ... More

African Americans: Practice Interventions  

Sharon E. Moore

African Americans number about 35 million or 12% of the U.S. population. Their life expectancy is lower than that of White Americans, and despite the educational gains made since ... More

African American Social Welfare History  

Iris Carlton-LaNey

This article discusses the African American social welfare system that began to develop during the early 20th century. This social welfare system, designed by African Americans to serve ... More

Afrocentric Social Work  

Colita Nichols Fairfax

Afrocentric social work is a concept and praxis approach applicable in environmental and global settings where people of African descent are located. Using concept analysis as a ... More

Aging: Racial and Ethnic Groups  

Daniel S. Gardner and Caroline Rosenthal Gelman

Minority and immigrant elders constitute a greater proportion of the population than ever before and are the fastest growing segment of the older population. Within these racial and ethnic ... More

Alaska Natives  

Sarah (Hicks) Kastelic

Alaska Natives represent less than 1% of the U.S. population but reside in more than 229 Native villages and account for 40% of federally recognized tribes. Most Alaska Native communities ... More

Arab Americans  

Kristine J. Ajrouch

This entry defines the term Arab American, followed by a discussion of the two waves of immigration: before 1924 and post-1965. A demographic overview is presented next, drawing from data ... More

Asian Americans: South Asians  

Brij Mohan

This entry briefly profiles the dynamic fusion, fluidity, and future of South Asians in America. While Diaspora India is emblematic of immigrant culture as a whole, South Asian duality ... More

Asian Americans: Filipinos  

Paula T. Morelli, Alma Trinidad, and Richard Alboroto

Online publication date:
Sep 2014
Filipinos are the second largest group of Asians in the United States; more than 3.4 million Filipino Americans live primarily within the largest U.S. continental cities (including Los ... More

Caribbean Americans  

Marcia Bayne-Smith and Annette M. Mahoney

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The diverse group of people referred to as Caribbean Americans come from the Circum-Caribbean region, which includes the island nations of the Caribbean Sea and the nations of Central ... More

Cultural Competence and Critical Consciousness in Social Work Pedagogy  

Ronald Pitner and Izumi Sakamoto

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
For social workers, developing cultural competence is a necessary hallmark for interacting with our increasingly diverse and complex world. Developing cultural competence, however, ... More

Demographics  

Gunnar Almgren and Ji Young Kang

This entry provides a brief overview of the field of social demography, the components of population change, projections for future population growth, and recent transformations in ... More

Gay Men: Practice Interventions  

Robert L. Miller Jr.

This chapter explores salient concepts of social work practice with gay men. These concepts are described within a life cycle context. The illuminated concepts have been identified based ... More

Haitian Americans  

Flore Zéphir

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Haitians constitute a visible segment of American society, with a population close to 1 million. Many experience a great deal of difficulty adjusting to a different culture and language, ... More

Immigration Policy  

Uma A. Segal

Individuals and families from around the globe form a continuous stream of immigrants to the United States, with waiting lists for entry stretching to several years. Reasons for this ... More

Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Survival  

Priscilla A. Day

Indigenous people across the globe are struggling for the cultural survival of their families and communities. This article provides an overview of indigenous people across the world and ... More

Individual Practice with Undocumented Immigrants  

Flavio F. Marsiglia, Jaime M. Booth, and Adrienne Baldwin

Undocumented immigrants represent a large and vulnerable population in the United States. When conducting individual practice with undocumented immigrants, social workers must be aware of ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Africa (Sub-Sahara)  

Kwaku Osei-Hwedie

Africa is one of the world's poorest regions and it faces numerous and complex challenges as it strives to achieve its development objectives. The main challenges relate to poverty and its ... More

International Social Work and Social Welfare: Asia  

Ngoh Tiong Tan

Asia contains more than 60% of the world’s population and is the fastest growing economic region. However, it faces challenges, including poverty, HIV and AIDS, and human rights concerns. ... More

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