1,041-1,060 of 1,109 Results


Unaccompanied Refugee Minors and Migrant Youth: Policy and Practices in the United States  

Robert G. Hasson III, Jodi Berger Cardoso, and Thomas M. Crea

Children and adolescents fleeing war, hardship, or natural disasters sometimes migrate to the United States without a parent or caregiver present. These children, classified by the U.S. Government as unaccompanied alien children (UAC), present unique needs based on previous exposure to trauma, including family separation. UAC who are not able to be reunited with family members are typically placed in the federally sponsored Unaccompanied Refugee Minor (URM) foster care program. However, a majority of unaccompanied migrant youth are not served by the URM foster care program. An overview of the defining characteristics of unaccompanied refugee minors and unaccompanied migrant youth (UMY) is given along with the history of legislation and policies related to URM and UMY, the pathways in the U.S. immigration system URM and UMY encounter upon their arrival, mental health, legal, and education implications, and challenges with family reunification. Implications for the social work field are presented.


Undocumented Migrants and Detention Facilities  

Jelka Zorn

Being undocumented does not mean being without ties to one’s host society: undocumented immigrants might work and have family and friends; they might be active in community life, etc. However, due to a lack of formal status, they are vulnerable to detention and deportation. Instead of vilifying migrants for their irregular situation, the article sees immigration controls as a source of unjust policies and practices. Immigrant detention means administrative imprisonment without the normal due process safeguards commonly demanded in liberal democracies. Its consequences are separated families and broken individuals. Social work is seen as a profession developing ethical considerations and arguments to advocate for the right to belong to an organized political community, the right to social security, and the right to personal liberties being applicable to all people, regardless of their immigration status.


Unemployment Insurance  

Larry Nackerud and Lauren Ricciardelli

This entry addresses unemployment insurance as the cornerstone of the Social Security Act of 1935 and, accordingly, as a cornerstone of the modern U.S. social welfare system. After providing a brief historical background of the Unemployment Insurance program, including key ties to the social work profession, this entry provides information about underlying ideological perspectives, and about program design and implementation. Key considerations are discussed with regard to the impact of the economic downturn and the global COVID-19 pandemic on unemployment insurance using a Keynesian framework. Finally, a discussion is offered pertaining to the legacy and possible reform of the Unemployment Insurance program.



Howard Karger

This article deals with the goals and tensions between professionalism and social work unionization. This article addresses obstacles to the unionization of social workers, such as the mixed messages about unionization inherent in the National Association of Social Workers’ Code of Ethics, the incipient antiunion sentiment within social work (which partly explains the dearth of social work strikes when compared with teachers’ strikes), the impact of privatized social services on unionization, and the chilling effects of a business union perspective on professional issues that concern social workers. This article calls for a fusion between union and professional concerns.


University-Community Partnerships  

Tracy M. Soska

Social work is among the most engaged fields in both education and practice, but it is important to recognize university-community engagement through the historical development of higher education and the university as a reflection of society and community development. Universities have been shaped by and, reciprocally, have helped shape society and community. Social work as an engaged and applied profession reflects this vital connectivity from its earliest roots in the settlement house and charitable organization movements to its current posture of community engagement in education and practice. Higher education in the community context has evolved from a relationship of co-location and codependence to one of increasing intentionality toward engagement and partnership for interdependence and mutual benefit, including addressing racial and socioeconomic tensions. It is useful to explore this evolution from “university in the community” to “university of the community” as well as the implications this holds for social work, especially macro social work.


Upshaw, Joan King  

Sadye L. M. Logan

Joan King Upshaw, MSW, LSCSW (1929–2010), was a social work entrepreneur who pioneered temporary social work staffing. She created a useful avenue for professional social workers to work in ways that supported work–life balance, to work across fields of practice, and to start their own social change ventures.


Urban Planning and Social Work  

Laurie A. Walker

Urban neighborhood disinvestment in the United States resulted in deferred maintenance of buildings and common social problems experienced by residents. Strategies to redevelop neighborhoods include collaboration among many subsystems seeking to collectively invest in places and people. Contemporary federal initiatives focus on incentivizing coordinated investments between existing local community-based organizations, local and federal government, and private investors. Public–private partnerships include anchor institutions with commitments to the long-term success of place-based initiatives who invest their financial, intellectual, social, and political capital. Social workers are embedded in local community-based organizations and relationships with residents in neighborhoods experiencing redevelopment. Social workers can help guide top-down and bottom-up approaches to neighborhood revitalization toward more equitable and inclusive processes and outcomes. Resident engagement in redeveloping neighborhoods takes many forms and requires differing skill sets for social workers. Urban redevelopment is a global trend with common critiques regarding relying on gentrification and market-driven strategies with private investors.


Urban Practice  

Wendy Cholico

Social work practice is best understood and practiced when taking into account the local context. The urban context of social work practice may share much with suburban and rural contexts but also brings with it unique problems and opportunities. Location in urban cities plays a major role on the social, economic, and environmental justice of group populations. Within close proximity and density of some locations, groups of people become isolated due to social and economic status. Subsequently, opportunities that foster well-being are limited and environmental hazards such as water and air pollution further suppress vulnerable group populations, limiting opportunities due to structural disparities. Distribution of environments, resources, and opportunities is connected to social justice through the relationship of people and environment, combined by race, gender, and class. Furthermore, gentrification is an evolving social problem that leads to displacement of vulnerable groups, challenging social workers to be social, economic, environmental, and political change agents that disrupt injustices on behalf of marginalized populations.


U.S. Military Families  

Judith Dekle

Social work with members of the U. S. military began during World War I and continues to evolve along with the military, its service members, and their families. This article provides an overview of the U. S. military as an organization that produces a unique culture; demographics that describe service members, military spouses, and military children; and some key indicators of the impact of military life derived from scientifically structured surveys and studies of service members and their families. It also identifies relevant professional practice and education standards for social workers who work with military families regularly and/or on a full-time basis as well as for those who are working with them for the first time and/or only on occasion. Woven together, the understanding of military families and adherence to established standards of practice discussed in this paper can provide the reader with a solid foundation for their practice when working with military families.


Van Kleeck, Mary Ann  

Lynne M. Healy

Mary Ann van Kleeck (1883–1972) was director of the Department of Industrial Studies at the Russell Sage Foundation. She studied the effect of technology on employment and her labor research led to legislation protecting women workers.


Vasey, Wayne  

Ludwig L. Geismar

Wayne Vasey (1910–1992) was a social work educator who contributed to the fields of social policy, social welfare, and gerontology. He was founding executive of the social work schools at the University of Iowa and Rutgers University.


Veteran Services in Macro Practice  

Leora Shudofsky and Amanda Matteson

This article presents an overview of veteran services, including the definition of a veteran as it relates to eligibility for services and a range of veteran services are described. Background information includes a brief history of social workers in the military and in veteran services. Social workers practice in many macrolevel areas where social justice issues in veteran services are addressed, such as administration and management, community practice, and policy. Social workers who understand the challenges and trends in veteran services are better positioned to make an impact. Future implications for macro social work practice include integrating curriculum into schools of social work, building transition programs, collaborating in community health, normalizing mental health treatment, and working on policy enactment along with many other areas where social workers can make an impact on the well-being of veteran communities.


Victim Services  

Karen S. Knox

Social workers provide services for crime victims and their families in a variety of settings, including law enforcement, the court systems, corrections, and parole or probation. This entry presents a historical overview of the types of victim-services programs and models that have been developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Social-work roles and interventions in victim-services programs are discussed. The need for specialized education and training in crisis intervention, domestic violence, and child abuse is addressed, along with recent challenges and innovations in the field of victim services.


Vigilante, Florence Wexler  

Sadye L. M. Logan

Florence Wexler Vigilante (1918–2011) served on the faculty of the Hunter College School of Social Work (now Silberman School of Social Work) for 42 years. She pioneered the development of the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) in schools of social work in university-based settings. She was known nationally for her groundbreaking work in employment settings.


Vigilante, Joseph  

Michael Reisch

Joseph Vigilante (1925–2005) made contributions to the fields of international social work and neighborhood-based social services and promoted the rights of people with developmental and learning disabilities. He became Dean of Adelphi's School of Social Work in 1962.


Vinson, Phillipe Anthony (Tony)  

Eileen Baldry

Phillipe Anthony (Tony) Vinson (1935–2017) AM, whose work spanned the disciplines of social work, social policy, criminology, psychology, education, public administration and social research, was one of Australia’s most distinguished social scientists and public intellectuals. As a pioneer in social research and social reform, he was an initiator of groundbreaking studies on the distribution of disadvantage in Australia, and author of numerous academic articles and reports for governments and NGOs on social justice and equity.


Vinter, Robert  

Kenneth S. Carpenter

Robert Vinter (1921–2006) was an educator and consultant and worked at the University of Michigan School of Social Work for 31 years. He was well known for this work in the fields of juvenile delinquency and group work. He was a founding member of the National Association of Social Workers



Sheara A. Williams

Violence is a serious social issue that affects millions of individuals, families, and communities every year. It transcends across racial, age, gender, and socioeconomic groups, and is considered a significant public health burden in the United States. The purpose of this entry is to provide an overview of violence as a broad yet complicated concept. Definitional issues are discussed. Additional prevalence rates of select types of violence are presented in addition to risk and protective factors associated with violent behavior. The entry concludes with a summary of approaches to address violence in the context of prevention and intervention strategies.


Virtual Communities of Practice  

Mary Pender Greene

Sociologists and social workers have long been invested in understanding the role of communities in shaping identities and influencing behavior; however, the study of virtual communities is still new despite the dramatic ways in which online social networks have replaced traditional, geographically bound conceptions of community. The present article briefly reviews some of the early theories of community that have influenced practically all scholars studying computer-mediated virtual communities. The focus then shifts toward an analysis of early, important theorists focusing on virtual communities. The article concludes by examining contemporary research and practices utilizing virtual communities in social work, with a particular emphasis on ways to integrate virtual communities into professional practice.


Vocational Services  

Lauren B. Gates

Vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, provided through a jointly funded state–federal rehabilitation system and available in each state, help people with disabilities prepare for, secure, and sustain employment. Since 1920, VR Programs have helped 10 million individuals with disabilities reach employment. Anyone with a mental or physical disability is eligible for VR services. While a range of services is provided, the services most consistent with VR goals are those, such as supported employment, that promote full integration into community life. Social workers are essential to community-based VR services; however, a challenge for the profession is to assume new roles to meet best practice vocational standards.