This entry discusses the evolution of the field of couples counseling from an auxiliary service provided through a variety of professional disciplines to a well-established field defined by its own standards, approaches, and a building body of research. While a few interventions for couples have been well researched using well-established standards, many of the interventions used by practitioners still lack evidence-based research or standard criteria. Also the research does little to address diversity and the application of interventions considering race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic levels. These concerns require ongoing attention.
Susan C. Harnden
Kosta N. Kalogerogiannis, Richard Hibbert, Lydia M. Franco, Taiwanna Messam, and Mary M. McKay
For over 20 years, social workers have been involved in service delivery for HIV and AIDS infected and affected individuals. It is estimated that more than 1 million people are living with HIV or AIDS in the United States. The rates of HIV infections continue to rise, with more than 40,000 individuals being diagnosed each year in the United States. This entry explores the current trends in HIV primary prevention, secondary prevention, and counseling and psychotherapy services for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.