This article reviews existing knowledge on the assessment of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and available screening, prevention, and intervention services. The wide range of preventable conditions associated with FASD throughout the life cycle is described, along with associated high-risk maternal behaviors. In addition, cultural and social determinants are discussed, in an effort to inform social work practice. The differentiation of FASD and protective factors that have been identified as reducing negative outcomes for children and their families affected by prenatal alcohol exposure are also explained. Finally, multidisciplinary and culturally appropriate prevention services are emphasized as well as early diagnosis and strength-based intervention strategies.
Elizabeth C. Pomeroy, Danielle Parrish, Angela M. Nonaka, and Kathleen H. Anderson
Diana M. DiNitto
This entry defines comorbidity and similar terms used in various fields of practice. It addresses the prevalence of comorbidity, suggests explanations for comorbidity, and discusses integrated treatment for comorbid conditions and the importance of the concept of comorbidity in social work practice.