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Article

Usha Nayar, Priya Nayar, and Nidhi Mishra

The paper presents a global scenario of child labor by placing the issue in a historical context as well as comparing current work in the field. It specifically explains the psychosocial, political, and economic determinants of child labor and the prevalence of different forms as well as its magnitude in the different regions of the world. It features innovative programs and actions taken against child labor by local governments, civil societies, and United Nations bodies—mainly the International Labor Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund. The paper also highlights multilateral collaborations among the UN and other international agencies that stand against child labor in general and the employment of children in hazardous conditions. It illustrates the cooperation among local governments, civic organizations, and child-rights movements that have brought gradual changes over the decades toward ending child labor. Further, it suggests that social work, relevant professional schools, and associations working in various disciplines should be engaged in research-based advocacy and find innovative solutions to control child labor.

Article

Richard Wolff and Karen Dodge

This entry discusses migrant workers in the United States and the unique circumstances and conditions they face. Included in the discussion are social problems faced by migrants with respect to health, housing, working conditions, child labor, and education. Policy issues are addressed, including relevant national, international, and corporate laws. Migrant patterns, demographics, and definitions are presented. Finally, social work programs, responses, and interventions are identified.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Grace Abbott (1878–1939) was a teacher who went on to become Director of the Immigrants Protective League of Chicago and Director of the U.S. Children's Bureau. In 1934 she became professor of public welfare at the University of Chicago.

Article

Maryann Syers

Katharine Fredrica Lenroot (1891–1982), praised for her contributions to child welfare, juvenile delinquency, and child labor laws, worked at the U.S. Children's Bureau for 37 years. She became its chief in 1934 and represented the United States at UNICEF.

Article

Susan Donner

Ellen Gates Starr (1859–1940) was a social reformer who, with Jane Addams, co-founded Hull-House to provide women with a new avenue for living independently. The condition of the poor population led her to become active in the labor movement.

Article

Joanne "Rocky" Delaplaine

Mary Harris “Mother” Jones (1830–1930) was a union organizer for the United Mine Workers of America and was known for her tireless efforts to improve the lives of working people and raising public awareness of the issues of child labor.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Frances Perkins (1882–1965) was the first female U.S. Cabinet member, appointed secretary of labor in 1933 by Franklin D. Roosevelt. She helped standardize state industrial legislation, promoted the adoption of the social security system, and pushed for improved workers' conditions.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Florence Kelley (1859–1932) crusaded against child labor, which led to the establishment of the U.S. Children's Bureau in 1912. In 1892 she was head of the Factory Inspection Department and became director of the National Consumer League in 1899.