The history of social work is deeply rooted in helping vulnerable populations improve their well-being, and children have been at the forefront of these efforts since the inception of the profession. Health is long understood to be critical to children’s well-being. Social workers who are skilled in integrating different systems can play pivotal roles in engineering new and improving existing health-care infrastructures and can act as advocates for fusing health-service systems with other social infrastructures to optimize outcomes for children. This entry reviews trends in children’s health throughout the world, particularly in the United States. It describes the dramatic improvements in reducing infant mortality, child mortality and morbidity from many infectious diseases as well as accidental and environmental causes, and the unequal progress in realizing children’s health. The challenges that lie ahead that pose risks to children’s health are discussed, including the health inequities created among and within countries by social, economic, and political factors. An argument for a comprehensive, integrated, evidence-based, and cross-disciplinary approach to improve children’s future health is presented.
Shirley Gatenio Gabel
Jean K. Quam
Martha May Eliot (1891–1978) was an educator and public health official. She was the first woman president of the American Public Health Association. She became chief medical consultant for UNICEF in 1947. She was later assistant director general of WHO, and the U.S. representative to the executive board of UNICEF.
James K. Whittaker
This entry addresses the current state of therapeutic group care services for children and youth. Demographic programmatic trends and research findings are reviewed as are emergent issues and critical questions for further research and practice innovation. Suggestions for improvement of therapeutic group care services are offered in the context of an overall spectrum of services for children and families.