Florence Lieberman (1918–2011) made extraordinary contributions to the field of clinical social work in New York City while a professor at Hunter College School of Social Work (now Silberman School of Social Work), where she served from 1966 to 1986.
Sadye L. M. Logan
Sadye L. M. Logan
Harriett Rinaldo (1906–1981) helped shape and create job definitions and standards for caring for veterans that became a model for the federal government and other social work agencies. She was the first to identify “clinical social work” as a specialty standard within personnel specifications.
Cultural Institutions and the Arts
Lorraine Gutiérrez and Mark Creekmore
The arts and cultural institutions can be powerful resources for promoting the development of individuals and communities. Social work agencies and cultural institutions share similar goals at the individual and community levels, such as personal improvement, the creation of social bonds, expression of communal meaning, and economic growth. Studies on the use of arts in social work practice suggest that they can be powerful tools for intervention. These collaborations were essential to practice in the social settlements and in economic policies of the New Deal. Social work practice into the future can build upon this historical engagement.
Freed, Anne O.
Vesela Ivanova and Vaska Stancheva-Popkostadinova
Anne O. Freed (1917–2012) is among the pioneers in clinical social work in the United States. She served as a clinician, administrator, researcher, lecturer, and mentor. She advanced clinical social work practice and furthered the awareness of mental health issues in geriatric practice. Anne introduced clinical social work to Bulgaria.
Ewalt, Patricia Alice Littlefield
Sadye L. M. Logan
Patricia Alice Littlefield Ewalt (1934–2022) was a strategic, organized, and brilliant social work administrator. She served the profession of social work as a planner, administrator, organizer, and educator. Her research and scholarship provided a collective vision of multiculturalism in social work practice and education. Within the profession and her administration, Ewalt advocated for inclusion, diversity, equity, accessibility, and belonging.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Addie Weaver, Joseph Himle, Gail Steketee, and Jordana Muroff
This entry offers an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive behavioral therapy is introduced and its development as a psychosocial therapeutic approach is described. This entry outlines the central techniques and intervention strategies utilized in CBT and presents common disorder-specific applications of the treatment. The empirical evidence supporting CBT is summarized and reviewed. Finally, the impact of CBT on clinical social work practice and education is discussed, with attention to the treatment’s alignment with the profession’s values and mission.
Mental Health Research
Shaun M. Eack
Mental health research is the study of the causes and correlates of mental health and illness, approaches to improve mental well-being, and the delivery of effective mental health services to those in need. Social workers have been leading researchers in each of these areas of inquiry, and this article provides an overview of the broad field of mental health research, with particular emphasis on the contributions of social work. A biopsychosocial review of research on the correlates of mental health and illness is provided, followed by a synthesis of studies examining pharmacological and psychosocial approaches to improving mental health. Research on mental health services is then presented, with a focus on studies seeking to improve access to quality care and reduce service disparities. Key directions for future mental health research include identifying specific causal predictors of mental illness, improving existing treatments, and disseminating advances to the community.
Eda G. Goldstein
The psychosocial framework is a distinctive practice model that originated early in the profession's history. Its goals are to restore, maintain, and enhance the personal and social functioning of individuals. Drawing on psychological and social theories, it has evolved considerably from its Freudian and ego psychological underpinnings. It has incorporated new knowledge on gender and diversity. Assessment, the client–worker relationship, respect for diversity, and an appreciation of client strengths are fundamental to the psychosocial approach. It uses both individual and environmental interventions and can be applied to a broad range of client populations. There is empirical evidence for the utility of psychosocial intervention but more research on the psychosocial framework is needed.
Kelly, Michael S.
Michael Stokely Kelly (1968–2021), who served as Lucian Welch and Carol Matusak Endowed Chair at Loyola University, has left a lasting legacy in the students and colleagues whom he has inspired and mentored. He was an innovative, forward-thinking, master teacher-scholar in the field of school social work.