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Article

Lorraine Gutiérrez and Mark Creekmore

The arts and cultural institutions can be powerful resources for promoting the development of individuals and communities. Social work agencies and cultural institutions share similar goals at the individual and community levels, such as personal improvement, the creation of social bonds, expression of communal meaning, and economic growth. Studies on the use of arts in social work practice suggest that they can be powerful tools for intervention. These collaborations were essential to practice in the social settlements and in economic policies of the New Deal. Social work practice into the future can build upon this historical engagement.

Article

Sadye L. M. Logan

Paul Hullman Ephross (1935–2017) served as professor for over two decades on the faculty of the University of Maryland, Baltimore School of Social Work (UMB SSW). He retired in 2008. He was a popular, creative, and innovative teacher who excelled at experiential-based teaching. Through his research and scholarly publications he made a significant contribution to the knowledge base in the profession.

Article

Sharon E. Milligan

This article will cover the history, theory, and empirical and practical knowledge of community building. Social networks and social ties contribute to informal social control, while neighborhood behavior is key to the development and maintenance of social cohesion. The author will provide a discussion of the relationships among these elements and their relationships to other community resources, such as civic participation and collective action. The author will discuss the empirical work regarding the effective ways to produce and promote community building in poor neighborhoods, as well as the practical knowledge that suggest its importance.

Article

Lou M. Beasley

Frankie Victoria Adams (1902–1979) was a social worker who influenced the development of social work education and of professional social work in the American South. She developed the Group Work and Community Organization concentrations at Atlanta University.

Article

Florence Ellen Netting

Macro social work practice includes those activities performed in organizational, community, and policy arenas. Macro practice has a diverse history that reveals conflicting ideologies and multiple theoretical perspectives. Programmatic, organizational, community, and policy dimensions of macro practice underscore the social work profession's emphasis on using a person-in-environment perspective. Thus, social workers, regardless of roles played, are expected to have sensitivity toward and engage in macro practice activities.

Article

Dorothy N. Gamble and Marie Weil

Major social changes resulting from globalization, the increase in multicultural societies, and growing concerns for human rights, especially for women and girls, will affect all community practice in this century. Community-practice processes—organizing, planning, sustainable development, and progressive social change—are challenged by these trends and the ethical dilemmas they pose. Eight distinct models of community-practice intervention are described with examples from around the globe. The values and ethics that ground community-practice interventions are drawn from international and national literature. Model applications are identified for work with groups, urban and rural communities, organizations and coalitions, and in advocacy and leadership for social justice and human rights.

Article

As individuals age, their physical community continues to be a primary entry point of intervention because of their attachment to place, social connections, and limited mobility to travel as far and as often as they would like or desire. The environment provides a context for understanding an older adult’s social interactions and the availability of and access to supportive services that reduce isolation and increased risk for reduced health status. When individuals age in place, social workers need to understand how community-based services can work with older adults in their community where they have lived for some time and have developed social networks. This knowledge will better assist social workers in their ability to effectively connect clients with appropriate resources. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for an older adult’s environment to not reflect or adapt to their changing health status and physical mobility. Healthy aging (also referred to as age-friendly) and NORC (naturally occurring retirement communities) initiatives have emerged as examples of how to provide supportive, community-based services that will enable older adults to remain engaged in their community as they experience changes in their health status, mobility, and financial security. These community-level interventions emphasize the adaptability to an older adult’s changing lifestyle factors that influence how they navigate their community. These initiatives engage older adults in planning and implementing strategies to connect older adults with services and activities that promote aging in place. Social workers play a very important role in the provision of community-based aging services because they can serve as a bridge between older adults and the local, state, and federal level programs that may be available to them.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Harry Lawrence Lurie (1892–1973) was a leader in the establishment and proliferation of Jewish charitable organizations, including the Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds. He was also the first editor of the Encyclopedia of Social Work.

Article

Pranab Chatterjee, Heehyul Moon, and Derrick Kranke

The term technology transfer was first used widely during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations when the role of the United States in relation to developing countries was being formed. At that time, it meant knowledge transfer from the rich countries to the poor countries. In social work, the idea is important in efforts of community organization, community development, and social development. It is also an important idea in direct practice. Technology in these practice settings means the application of a basic social science toward facilitating one or more given ends that benefit human beings. Technology transfer means the passing on of such applied knowledge from one discipline or specialty to another. The application of technology transfer also requires understanding of the cultural setting where it originates as well as of the setting where it is imported for local use.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Arthur Dunham (1893–1980) was a pacifist, writer, and social work educator. He wrote extensively about community development and social welfare administration. His writing contributed to the evolution of community organization as a social work method.

Article

Philip Bernstein

Arnold Gurin (1917–1991) was a leader in advancing community organization, social work policies and practices, planning and research, education, and administration in voluntary, government, and Jewish services in the United States, Canada, Israel, and France.

Article

Dorothy N. Gamble and Tracy M. Soska

“Macro practice” is identified as social work with communities, organizations, and inter- and intra-organizational groups engaged in progressive maintenance or change strategies. Social workers in macro practice engage in planning, organizing, development, collaboration, leadership, policy practice, advocacy, and evaluation. In 2010, the Association of Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) defined competencies expected of people doing this work. ACOSA identified two separate but related sets of competencies: one based on the literature found in its sponsored journal, The Journal of Community Practice, and a second derived from 10 competencies elaborated on in the Council on Social Work Education’s (CSWE) Educational Policies and Accreditation Standards. Identifying competencies defines knowledge, values, judgments, and skills that social workers doing macro practice should address. Evaluating competencies can be determined by educational programs, service organizations that employ macro practitioners, or by the practitioners themselves as they move through their career in social work.

Article

Amanda Moore McBride

Civic engagement is the backbone of the social work profession. Through our civic mission, we have long organized and empowered citizens in common pursuits to address social, economic, and political conditions. In the United States, the status of social and political engagement is of heightened concern, particularly as emerging research demonstrates a range of effects. The challenge for social work is to increase the capacity of the nonprofit sector to promote and maximize engagement, especially among low-income and low-wealth individuals, through theory-driven, evidence-based interventions.

Article

David G. Gil

Violet Sieder (1909–1988) was a social welfare educator and leader. She taught social planning, community organization, and rehabilitation at the Florence Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University. She organized the Massachusetts Human Services Coalition, serving as its first president (1975–1981).

Article

Sadye L. M. Logan

William Leonard Stern (1926–2019) had a long and distinguished career as a social worker and member of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). Over more than five decades, he developed policies, built and managed programs, and provided consultation and evaluation services to a variety of human service organizations, professional associations, and governmental agencies.

Article

Frances Feldman and Haluk Soydan

Emory Bogardus (1882–1973) established the first Sociology Department in the West in 1915. His study on “social distance” is still used to examine cultural, ethnic, and religious attitudes. In 1920 he founded Alpha Kappa Delta, the sociology honor society.

Article

John F. Longres

Eduard Christian Lindeman (1885–1953), a scholar of social philosophy and group methods, was on the faculty of the New York School of Social Work until retirement in 1950. He was president of the National Conference of Social Work in 1952.

Article

Renee Bowman Daniel and Karen Berner Little

Maria Maltby Love (1840–1931), social architect and humanitarian, pioneered two projects to improve the lives of women and their families: the Fitch Creche (1881), the first U.S. day nursery, and the Church District Plan (1896), a citywide, interdenominational community services program.

Article

Haluk Soydan and Frances Feldman

Genevieve Carter (1907–1999) was a distinguished social welfare researcher, social work administrator, and educator. She was head of intra-mural research in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, conducting research for policy formulation. She also directed research at other institutions.

Article

Donald M. Linhorst

Consumers of health and mental health services are afforded numerous legal rights. Broad categories of rights include self-determination, access to health information, protections for mental health consumers who are hospitalized, and a right to community integration. Two areas of consumer rights are emerging: a greater emphasis on human rights, and the right of consumers to participate in developing and implementing programs and services within the organizations from which they receive services. Various means for enforcing rights exist in both the private and the public sectors. Social workers play critical roles in ensuring that consumer rights become a reality.