Community planning is a process of participatory and inclusive organized social change, directed toward community empowerment, building community, and developing members’ capacities to take part in democratic decision making. A three-dimensional model of empowering community planning is presented and discussed. The model focuses on the tasks of community social work in the planning process, and the empowering outcomes they can enable.
Elisheva Sadan and Edith Blit-Cohen
Ephross, Paul Hullman
Sadye L. M. Logan
Paul Hullman Ephross (1935–2017) served as professor for over two decades on the faculty of the University of Maryland, Baltimore School of Social Work (UMB SSW). He retired in 2008. He was a popular, creative, and innovative teacher who excelled at experiential-based teaching. Through his research and scholarly publications he made a significant contribution to the knowledge base in the profession.
Community Macro Practice Competencies
Tracy M. Soska
Community macro practice is one of three spheres of macro social work practice along with human services management and policy practice. The historical context on macro practice and community practice since the Council on Social Work Education first adopted competency-based professional education through its Education Policies and Accreditation Standards in 2008 is important to appreciate how macro practice competencies have evolved. It is also salient to understand how the Association of Community Organization and Social Action (ACOSA) has been at the forefront of developing macro practice and, especially, community practice competencies, and it these efforts present the most current framework of community macro practice competencies entailed in ACOSA’s Community Practice Certificate partnership program with schools of social work.
Community Economic Development
Steven D. Soifer and Joseph B. McNeely
The basic concepts and history of community economic development (CED) span from the 1960s to the present, during which there have been four different waves of CED. During this time period, practitioners in the field have worked with limited resources to help rebuild low-to-moderate-income communities in the United States. There are particular values, theories, strategies, tactics, and programs used to bring about change at the community level. The accomplishments in the CED field are many, and social workers have played a role in helping with community building at the neighborhood, city, county, state and federal levels.
Naparstek, Arthur J.
Arthur J. Naparstek (1939–2004), community planning expert, worked in neighborhood revitalization and created the federal Hope VI program that changed U.S. public housing. He was dean and professor at Case Western Reserve University's Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences (1983–2004).
Alice K. Johnson Butterfield and Benson Chisanga
Community development is a planned approach to improving the standard of living and well-being of disadvantaged populations in the United States and internationally. An overview of community development is provided. The objectives of community development include economic development and community empowerment, based on principles of community participation, self-help, integration, community organizing, and capacity building. Community building and asset-based approaches are recent trends and innovations. Community development is interdisciplinary, with models and methods derived from disciplines such as social work and urban planning. The entry examines linkages between community development and macro practice, including an increase in employment opportunities for social workers.
Laura Burney Nissen
Macro social work has a long tradition of emphasizing planning. This array of practices typically looks at important intersections of community needs, resources, policies, and well-being—all of which combine to reflect, guide, and support the aspirations of groups, organizations, and communities. Futures thinking and foresight practice are an important emerging, but underutilized, set of ideas and tools available to macro-level social work practitioners and scholars to better navigate rapidly changing practice ecosystems. They have the ability to update and multiply traditional planning approaches. Futures thinking and foresight practice can have applications in numerous areas of practice, including (a) equity practice, (b) community practice, (c) organizational practice, and (d) government/policy practice. Social work ethics is likely to continue adapting to the changing world.
Sieder, Violet M.
David G. Gil
Violet Sieder (1909–1988) was a social welfare educator and leader. She taught social planning, community organization, and rehabilitation at the Florence Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University. She organized the Massachusetts Human Services Coalition, serving as its first president (1975–1981).
Affordable Housing: An International Perspective
Bonnie Young Laing
This entry explores key definitions, causes, and characteristics of slums in the global arena, along with the types of social work practice and general community development approaches being used to catalyze action to decrease the prevalence of slums. Core strategies include using planning efforts that prioritize input from people who live in slums, creating affordable housing, and otherwise transitioning urban slums into vibrant communities. Concluding thoughts and further considerations for social work practice are offered.
Care Transitions, Patient Health, and System Performance in the United States
June Simmons, Sandy Atkins, Janice Lynch Schuster, and Melissa Jones
Transitions in care occur when a patient moves from an institutional setting, such as a hospital or nursing home, to home or community, often with the hope or expectation of improving health status. At the very least, patients, clinicians, and caregivers aim to achieve stability and avoid complications that would precipitate a return to the emergency department (ED) or hospital. For some groups of vulnerable people, especially the very old and frail, such transitions often require specific, targeted coaching and supports that enable them to make the change successfully. Too often, as research indicates, these transitions are poorly executed and trigger a cycle of hospital readmissions and worsening health, even death. In recognizing these perils, organizations have begun to see that by improving the care transition process, they can improve health outcomes and reduce costs while ensuring safety, consistency, and continuity. While some of this improvement relies on medical care, coaching, social services and supports are often also essential. Lack of timely medical follow-up, transportation, inadequate nutrition, medication issues, low health literacy, and poverty present barriers to optimal health outcomes. By addressing social and environmental determinants of health and chronic disease self-management, social workers who make home visits or other proven timely interventions to assess and coach patients and their caregivers are demonstrating real results. This article describes care transitions interventions, research into barriers and opportunities, and specific programs aimed at improvement.
Love, Maria Maltby
Renee Bowman Daniel and Karen Berner Little
Maria Maltby Love (1840–1931), social architect and humanitarian, pioneered two projects to improve the lives of women and their families: the Fitch Creche (1881), the first U.S. day nursery, and the Church District Plan (1896), a citywide, interdenominational community services program.
Florence Philpott (1909–1992) was a Canadian social worker and leader in the field. Philpott worked as a caseworker, community organizer, educator, and she was involved in social planning and policy development. Philpott demonstrated strong leadership in community organizations concerned with poverty, homelessness, and unemployment. As executive director of the Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto, she mobilized a Needs and Resources Study that exposed inadequate relief rates and insufficient community support. Philpott contributed to the professionalization of social work in Canada as executive director of the Canadian Association of Social Workers in Ottawa from 1964 to 1971. Her extensive volunteer and work experience in the field of social work illustrates her commitment to advocating better relief rates for those living in poverty, guiding organizations in resource allocation, and promoting the role of social workers in the community.