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Article

The United Nations has defined six grave violations that occur in war that impact children: killing or maiming of children, recruitment or use of children as soldiers, sexual violence against children, attacks against schools or hospitals, denial of humanitarian access for children, and abduction of children. These violations have a myriad of negative impacts on children, including biological, psychological, and social effects. Culturally appropriate support and care provided at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels can help alleviate these impacts and help children recover from these experiences.

Article

Susan P. Robbins and George S. Leibowitz

Conflict theory encompasses several theories that share underlying assumptions about interlocking systems of oppression and how they are maintained. The relevance of Marx’s theory of class conflict, C. Wright Mills’s power elite, and pluralist interest group theory are all important to understand and address social and economic gaps and informing policy for macro practice. Conflict theory can provide an understanding of health disparities, racial differences in mortality rates, class relationships associated with negative outcomes, poverty, discrimination in criminal justice, as well as numerous factors that are broadly associated with inequality embedded in social structures. Social workers play a significant role in addressing disparities in research, curricula, primary and secondary intervention, and public policy, and conflict theory can provide the framework necessary to enrich this understanding.

Article

Kylie Agllias

Family estrangement—a concept similar to emotional cutoff in Bowen family systems theory—is the unsatisfactory physical or emotional distancing between at least two family members. It is attributed to a number of biological, psychological, social, and structural factors affecting the family, including attachment disorders, incompatible values and beliefs, unfulfilled expectations, critical life events and transitions, parental alienation, and ineffective communication patterns. Family estrangement is often experienced as a considerable loss; its ambiguous nature and social disenfranchisement can contribute to significant grief responses, perceived stigma, and social isolation in some cases. The social-work profession has a role to play in raising social and political awareness of the prevalence of, contributors to, and effects of estrangement on the intergenerational family, with clinicians working to assess and address the impact of estrangement on individuals and the family system.

Article

Jeanne M. Giovannoni

Harry H. L. Kitano (1926–2006) taught at the UCLA Departments of Social Welfare and Sociology. His scholarship involved the application of social science theories to the understanding of racial and ethnic conflict and interactions, with particular regard to Japanese Americans.

Article

D. Crystal Coles and Jason Sawyer

Conflict fundamentally impacts human interaction and social organization, and thus persists as a primary emphasis within macro social work practice. Traditionally, conflict resolution and conflict mediation have been provided through aspects of prevention, restoration, procedural, or decision-making services. This entry expands definition, discussion, and application of conflict resolution and conflict mediation in policy, organizational, and community practice settings. Authors use a critical lens and create new approaches in the application of conflict as a both a tool and guide for transformative macro practice across social work macro practice contexts.

Article

Sheila H. Akabas

Employee assistance programs (EAPs), or membership assistance programs when sponsored by unions, are designed to improve worker productivity and motivation by responding to problems that workers experience which interfere with job performance and satisfaction. Now a ubiquitous characteristic of American workplaces, the programs are largely staffed by social workers. This entry discusses their historic development, extent, scope, structure, how they are perceived and utilized by different racial and gender populations, and the dilemmas and challenges facing EAPs as they try to define their role, function, and best practices amid emerging trends in the world of work.

Article

This entry provides a brief history of social work's changing knowledge base about human behavior and identifies the current knowledge base as multidimensional, multispherical, multicultural, multidirectional, multidisciplinary, and multitheoretical. It provides an overview of eight broad theoretical perspectives currently used in social work: systems, conflict, rational choice, social constructionist, psychodynamic, developmental, social behavioral, and humanistic perspectives. Each perspective is analyzed in terms of its central ideas, practice implications, and empirical evidence. The entry ends with a brief discussion of trends and directions.

Article

Sadye L. M. Logan

Ronald Vernie Dellums, MSW (1935–2018), enjoyed a long and distinguished career as a compassionate social worker, a congressman who campaigned for international peace and disarmament, and an innovative businessman with a focus on healthcare. He served in numerous leadership positions both nationally and internationally. Although essentially thought of as a leader in the defense and foreign policy fields, he also distinguished himself with domestic legislative initiatives.

Article

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) is the arm of the international community that provides guidelines for practice in humanitarian emergencies and coordinates among the three parts of the humanitarian system: the United Nations and its agencies; the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee for the Red Cross; and the consortia of International non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This article describes the IASC Guidelines for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings, their role and history, and the role of social work in their development. The article notes the concurrence of various aspects of the Guidelines with social work practice, and provides case examples of social work interventions in the context of the Guidelines. Practical tools that social workers can use when confronting emergencies at home or abroad are included in the reference list.

Article

Mary Ohmer and Emily Underwood

Communities are shared spaces that can be geographic, virtual, or based on shared interest, identity, or function. All three types of communities can exist on their own and overlap with one another. Virtual communities have grown considerably over the years and were particularly important during the coronavirus pandemic. Study of these communities begins with conceptual definitions of communities and a historical overview of communities in macro social work practice. A discussion follows of theoretical and conceptual frameworks that can help macro social workers better understand how to engage communities in their work, including systems theory and the ecological perspective, theories that inform community social processes, conflict and consensus approaches to working with communities and the role of power and community empowerment, and critical race theory. Illustrative examples demonstrate how these theories and conceptual frameworks can be applied to communities.