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Shirley Otis-Green

Dame Cicely Saunders (1918–2005) was the founder of the modern hospice and palliative care movement. As a nurse, social worker, and eventually a physician, she developed a systematic approach to studying the symptom management needs of the terminally ill.



Mary Raymer and Dona J. Reese

Hospice social workers are essential members of the interdisciplinary team that provide biopsychosocial and spiritual care to terminally ill patients and their significant others during the last 6 months of life. Hospice philosophy emphasizes symptom control, quality of life, patient self-determination, and death with dignity. Hospice social workers must be skilled in providing evidence-based interventions including direct client services; collaboration with the interdisciplinary team; community outreach; developing culturally competent services; and advocating for policy change on the organizational, local, and national levels.


Salome Raheim, Sue Tebb, Mo Yee Lee, Collina D. Cooke, Chang Liu, and Siu-Man Ng

Integrative body–mind–spirit social work is a client-centered, strength-based holistic approach that blends the conventional social work professional practice base with Eastern philosophies. This whole person approach views harmony, balance, and awareness of connectedness among body, mind, and spirit and between the individual and larger significant systems as fundamental to health, mental health, and well-being. Acknowledgment of the body, mind, and spirit as sources of power and wisdom and attention to each of these domains in treatment are distinguishing features of this approach. Research findings during the past 20 years in the fields of neuroscience, psychoneuroimmunology, psychosocial genomics, epigenetics, health, and behavioral health support this more nuanced understanding of the biopsychosocial spiritual perspective. The unique features of this approach are based on selected aspects of several Chinese traditions—philosophical Buddhism and Daoism, traditional Chinese medicine, and the yin–yang perspective. Beyond problem-solving and symptom elimination, the focus of intervention is creating long-term healing and spiritual growth. Treatment techniques include meditation, other mindfulness exercises, and body movement therapies such as qi gong to deepen awareness of the body, mind, and spirit and their interconnection, restore balance and energy flow, and nurture the body.


Sadye L. M. Logan

Sister Mary Paul Janchill (1920–2009) lived a life of service and has inspired others professionally and personally through her vision and belief that people are nurtured and enriched in a family, and that a family is enhanced by its community. This was the belief upon which she cofounded and dedicated her life to the Center of Family Life and the Sunset Park Community in Brooklyn, New York.