Manon Lüttichau (1900–1995), who was born a privileged noblewoman, untraditionally sought education and personal independence. She served as a charity worker for 10 years, then became the first paid social helper in Denmark. She was a pioneer for social workers as important professionals in hospital departments. She became inspired by many tours in Europe and the United States for studies of social work and social work education. ML was initiator of the establishment of the first social school. This happened at a time when economic crises and several social reforms increased the need for a professional social work profession. A group of enthusiastic academics and social workers established a volunteer working committee for foundation of a social school . Here it was discussed whether the school should be independence of religion. The result was an independent curriculum, a schedule, a small faculty, creation of teaching material and organisation of administration and practice placement. Development of social work ethics, holistic perspective, and casework were among the subjects in the professional education. ML became later the initiator of the Association for Educated Social Workers in Denmark and she was also serving in Burma for the UN as a social welfare advisor. Similarities and differences between the first education, ML’s viewpoints and modern social work education are identified. ML was living independent of class traditions and other people’s presumptions, but not a declared feminist.
The State of Social Work in Egypt
Hamido A. Megahead
Although professional social work in Egypt has a 100-year history, there is a dearth of information in English about social work in Egypt and other non-Western countries. Five domains of social work in Egypt are (1) the international flow of Western social work practice into Egypt, (2) modern social work, (3) social work research and social work interventions, (4) social work education, and (5) fields of practice. These five domains that inform modern social work in Egypt were produced from international flows of Western social work practice into Egypt. It was also produced from social work research and social work intervention. Modern social work also comes from teaching bachelor of social work students professional social work courses. Social work knowledge was adapted, authenticated, and indigenized to meet local context. These five dominated themes have been detailed and explained. International flows of Western social work practice into Egypt include transmission (transplantation), authentication, and indigenization. Modern social work in Egypt includes social work practice and social welfare policy. Social work research has included explanatory, descriptive and experiment social work research studies. Social work intervention has included social work intervention of aiming at solving problems and stressors and social work intervention of aiming at applying resources for change. Fields of social work practice includes family and child Social Work and school social work. Social work education is focused only on Bachelor of Science in Social Work covering the professional social work courses group work practice, social casework practice, community organization, social welfare planning, policy and administration, fields of social work practice. A synthetic approach that knits together these five themes entail that modern social work has been produced from international flows of Western social work practice into Egyptian context. It is also produced from social work research and social work intervention. Modern social work also comes as results of teaching Bachelor Social Work (BSW) students the professional social work courses.
Helena Radlińska’s (1879–1954) pioneering roles in social work education, political and social activism, and her visionary contribution to theory, practice, and research of social work in Poland and beyond its borders are reviewed. Radlińska’s conceptualization of social work aimed at community development and social change, and addressed the social conditions of individuals as well as their potential. According to Radlińska, social workers assisted in overcoming difficulties by empowering individuals and communities. Hence, education and research in social work needed to build on an interdisciplinary approach and the personal development of students as educators, group facilitators, and community mobilizers. Based on the principle of critical reflection with the self and the world, Radlinka’s social work ouvre outlasted the socialist period and underwent an international renaissance in the postsocialist era. Radlińska has inspired social workers to fight for an inclusive and antipopulist future in Poland’s communities.
Kendall, Katherine A.
Lynne M. Healy
Katherine A. Kendall (1910–2010) served as Executive Director of the Council on Social Work Education and Secretary General of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW). She was a major contributor to the development of social work education globally and to internationalizing social work curriculum in the United States.
International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW)
This entry describes the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and explores challenges facing the organization. Founded in 1928, the IASSW is the worldwide organization representing social work education. Comprising member schools and individuals across six continents, it works, in spite of funding and voluntary leadership challenges, to create a globally inclusive organization, promote international exchange, and extend the influence of social work education at the United Nations and with other regional and international bodies.
International Social Work: Education
M. C. Terry Hokenstad
Social work education's development and focus around the world reflects the increasing reality of global interdependence in the initial decade of the 21st century. A number of countries have recently initiated programs of education for social workers, and there are an increasing number of international exchange programs for students and faculty. There continues to be considerable diversity in the focus and structure of educational programs across nations, but a recently developed set of Global Standards for Social Work Education and Training provides a common framework that can be voluntarily applied and adapted to local conditions.
Dr. Doreen Elliott (1941–2018) earned her bachelor of arts from Queen Mary University of London; a postgraduate certificate in education from the University of Hull, England, Institute of Education; her advance diploma in the educational rehabilitation of young people from the University of London, England, Institute of Education; and her doctoral degree from the University of Wales, United Kingdom, School of Social Work, University College Cardiff, UK. Elliott became a faculty member at the University of Wales in the field of social work and worked as a visiting associate professor at the University of Texas at Arlington for the 1986–1987 academic year. The University of Texas at Arlington became her home institution, first as Associate Professor (1988–1992) and then, from 1992 until retirement in 2013, as Professor.
International Social Work and Social Welfare: South America
South America, a land of beauty, diversity, and socioeconomic disparity, is going through a profound identity search, redefining the government's role concerning the welfare of its people, and most important, reevaluating its relationship with the Global North. Within this context, social work has a strong commitment to work with the most vulnerable sectors of the population affected by structural adjustment programs.
Rene Sand (1877–1953), Belgian social worker and physician, was best known in the field of social work for being co-founder of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) in 1928, and serving as its president from 1946 to 1953.
A Japanese social work educator and researcher, Tatsuo Wakabayashi was one of the founders and developers of the Japanese Association of Schools of Social Work (JASSW). Wakabayashi had a broad perspective and a solid ability to see the future of the times. He contributed to the development of social work theory and research in Japan.
Ragnhild Bjørknes and Hanne Synnøve Skedsmo Nilsen
Lilian Bye (1906–1977) was a developer of social work education as an applied academic discipline in Norway. She was the leader of establishing the first academic education for social workers in Norway. She was the principal at the school of social work in Trondheim from 1962, and during her time she established the first master’s in social work degree. Bye was a pioneer in academic education for social workers in Norway. Her work included clinical practices, publications, teaching, and leading social work education.
Brenda K. J. Crawley
Eileen McGowan-Kelly (1946–1996) was known for her peace-focused international community building among social workers in the U.S. and abroad.
Olive Stevenson (1930–2013) was an internationally recognized social work practitioner, educator, scholar, public servant, and consultant. She is particularly remembered for her contribution to the Maria Colwell Enquiry Report in 1974, which investigated a child’s death at the hands of her stepfather. The report was the first of what later became known as Serious Case Reviews. Stevenson authored a minority report, expressing dissent from some of the main report’s conclusions and strongly supporting social workers. This was much appreciated by practitioner social workers and leaders of Social Service departments at the time. She is also regarded by many in the United Kingdom as the leading social work academic of her generation over a 50-year career during a period of considerable change and challenge for the social work profession.