Environmental conditions, interpersonal relationships, and adverse experiences affect developmental outcomes and human functioning. Their affect is perhaps no more clearly visible than when examined through a neuroscientific lens. Key focus is specifically on mind-body-environment transactions which can be beneficial or destructive; the neuroscience of adversity which can explain whether and why hardship will result in toxic stress;s, and the neuroscience behind behavior change which can help tailor strategic interventions.e. The brain’s lifelong capacity to change and grow gives relevance to the hard work of the social work profession, as our interventions can be understood as potential neurobiological turning points across the life course. As will be seen, neuroscience helps to explain many of the challenges social workers confront in their work with clients and client systems. Yet neuroscience can also serve as a guide to address these same challenges by directing targeted interventions. As more and more schools of social work incorporate neuroscience into their curricula and social work scholars write about how this science could inform social work practice, the social work professionwill become a central partner in interdisciplinary coalitions that use neuroscientific discoveries to inform programs and policies to advance optimal human functioning and wellbeing across all system levels.
Laina Y. Bay-Cheng
This entry defines sexuality and identifies dominant explanatory models. In doing so, the entry outlines the central debate regarding the relative contributions of biology and social context. In addition, it highlights current key issues in the field of sexuality: the connection between sexuality and social inequality, the growing emphasis on the promotion of sexual health and well-being rather than just the prevention of sexual risk, the salience of sexuality across the life course, and the debate regarding sexuality education policy. Finally, it identifies parallels between these trends and social work, including the relation of sexuality to social work roles and practice.