Lobbying is the process of influencing public policy. It involves developing and implementing strategies to persuade those in power. Consistent with the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics, many social workers contribute to lobbying campaigns to advance the well-being of their clients or to promote social justice; some social workers become professional lobbyists, focusing their careers on government relations work. Successful lobbying involves forming and nurturing relationships with decision makers and generating and sharing information. Key elements of a lobbying campaign include agenda setting, face-to-face meetings with policymakers, coalition building, field organizing, testifying, preparing written materials, and the strategic use of media. Social work education provides opportunities to gain the knowledge and skills necessary for engaging in lobbying efforts. Lobbying activity is regulated by federal law; it is important that social workers and their employers understand and comply with these rules, but social workers are encouraged to remain as active as possible within these parameters. Future challenges include the demand for evidence to support policy recommendations and the inadequate numbers of social workers pursuing lobbying as a career.
Sunny Harris Rome and Sabrina Kiser
Demetrius S. Iatridis
Major socioeconomic developments during the last decades of the twentieth century and the beginning of the new millennium, including globalization, urbanization, the diminishing nationally funded welfare state, privatization, the U.N. Millennium Development Goals, and the consequent rapid expansion of private nonprofit health and welfare organizations, contributed greatly to the integration of social policy in macro social work practice. In this context, policy practice based on specific macro social work knowledge, values, and skills includes problem-solving intervention methods for human wellbeing. This transformation challenges and enhances social work's goals for both individual and societal development.
John G. McNutt
Information technology has had a profound effect on social work practice with larger systems. These tools improve traditional practice and allow new forms of practice. This entry reviews the use of technology in macro social work practice. It examines the role of technology in social administration, community practice, and social policy practice; discusses current practice and tools and discusses the challenges faced in the use of technology in macro practice.
Dorothy N. Gamble and Tracy M. Soska
“Macro practice” is identified as social work with communities, organizations, and inter- and intra-organizational groups engaged in progressive maintenance or change strategies. Social workers in macro practice engage in planning, organizing, development, collaboration, leadership, policy practice, advocacy, and evaluation. In 2010, the Association of Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) defined competencies expected of people doing this work. ACOSA identified two separate but related sets of competencies: one based on the literature found in its sponsored journal, The Journal of Community Practice, and a second derived from 10 competencies elaborated on in the Council on Social Work Education’s (CSWE) Educational Policies and Accreditation Standards. Identifying competencies defines knowledge, values, judgments, and skills that social workers doing macro practice should address. Evaluating competencies can be determined by educational programs, service organizations that employ macro practitioners, or by the practitioners themselves as they move through their career in social work.
Carmen Monico, Karen Smith Rotabi, and Taghreed Abu Sarhan
International development, humanitarian aid, and relief are at the heart of international social work practice. They have evolved historically and globally; shaped by world markets, social and environmental forces, including natural disasters. Considering this context, the authors cluster relevant social-work theories and practices as (a) human rights perspectives, and (b) ecological, feminist, and cultural theories. They discuss both micro and macro practice, with an emphasis on the latter. Case studies are presented with the overlay of relevant international conventions, guidance, and international private law. A continuum of humanitarian assistance is presented considering different countries. Guatemala is a prominent example in addition to Haiti’s massive earthquake of 2010 with recent revelations of sexual abuse and exploitation by humanitarian aid workers, post-conflict community-based practices in Afghanistan, and the largest cross-border forced migration in modern history of Iraqi, and Syrian refugees with this second group being of particular concern given their mass displacement. Capacity building as related to social work training is emphasized. This entry concludes that much remains to be accomplished with regard to capacity building among humanitarian assistance organizations so that the principles and practice strategies of international social work are institutionalized.
Monica Nandan and Gokul Mandayam
Social workers possess several skills, values, and perspectives that enable them to practice as social innovators, intrapreneurs, and entrepreneurs. Given the complex, dynamic, and challenging contexts for social work practice, these strategies become essential for social workers to continue creating social value and good. The article defines these strategies, describes the rationale for social workers to practice in a socially innovative, intrapreneurial, or entrepreneurial fashion, draws parallels between these strategies and social work practice, and builds a case for the social work curriculum to include contents related to these strategies to assist graduates in creating and sustaining change.
Dorothy N. Gamble and Marie Weil
Major social changes resulting from globalization, the increase in multicultural societies, and growing concerns for human rights, especially for women and girls, will affect all community practice in this century. Community-practice processes—organizing, planning, sustainable development, and progressive social change—are challenged by these trends and the ethical dilemmas they pose. Eight distinct models of community-practice intervention are described with examples from around the globe. The values and ethics that ground community-practice interventions are drawn from international and national literature. Model applications are identified for work with groups, urban and rural communities, organizations and coalitions, and in advocacy and leadership for social justice and human rights.
In social work, social capital is linked to both the prevention and treatment of mental and physical health. This concept has also been incorporated in the development of empowering interventions with marginalized minorities. The capacity-based and the youth development models of intervention, both call on social service organizations to work interdependently around meeting the needs for the human and social capital growth of youth (Morrison, Alcorn, & Nelums 1997). Social capital is also a feature of empowering interventions in neighborhoods and community development, as is collective efficacy, which is a measure of working trust that exists among residents and has been popularized as a way to stop youth high-risk behavior.