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Interpersonal Psychotherapy  

Sarah E. Bledsoe, Brianna M. Lombardi, Brittney Chesworth, and Samuel Lawrence

This article discusses interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a psychotherapeutic intervention developed by Gerald Klerman, Myrna Weissman, and colleagues in the 1970s as an outpatient treatment for major depression in adults. Based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan and Adolph Meyer, IPT is a manualized, time-limited intervention that addresses the underlying interpersonal antecedents and correlates of psychiatric illness. The goal of IPT as originally developed is to reduce depressive symptoms and improve interpersonal relationships. IPT has been widely tested in adults and adolescents and is an empirically supported treatment for major depression. IPT has been adapted for a variety of psychiatric illnesses and problems of living including perinatal depression, anxiety, and trauma-related disorders. Current evidence detailed below supports the use of IPT across cultures, illnesses, and populations.


Technology: Technology in Micro Practice  

Jerry Finn

Online therapy is the delivery of supportive and therapeutic services over the Internet. Online therapy offers the advantages of convenience and increased access to services. Service delivery may be problematic due to ethical concerns and legal liability. Limited research supports the efficacy of online therapy for a variety of health and social concerns. Increased use of the Internet by consumers and human service agencies will likely see growing use of online therapy and require training for workers and development of new policies and procedures for online service delivery.


Robinson, Virginia Pollard  

Mark Frazier Lloyd

Virginia Pollard Robinson (1883–1977) was a teacher and social worker. She served as Professor of Social Case Work at the University of Pennsylvania and was the leading force and major theoretician behind the functional approach to social work.


Confidentiality and Privileged Communication  

Carolyn I. Polowy, Sherri Morgan, W. Dwight Bailey, and Carol Gorenberg

Confidentiality of client communications is one of the ethical foundations of the social work profession and has become a legal obligation in most states. Many problems arise in the application of the principles of confidentiality and privilege to the professional services provided by social workers. This entry discusses the concepts of client confidentiality and privileged communications and outlines some of the applicable exceptions. While the general concept of confidentiality applies in many interactions between social workers and clients, the application of confidentiality and privilege laws are particularly key to the practice of clinical social workers in various practice settings.


Common Factors in Psychotherapy  

James W. Drisko

This entry examines the common factors approach in social work and in related professions. The term “common factors” refers to a set of features that are shared across different specific models of psychotherapy and social services, but may not always be conceptualized as being curative influences. The common factors approach broadens the conceptual base of potentially curative variables for practice and research. The history of common factors, the research designs and statistical methods that have led to the approach’s elaboration, the approach’s empirical base, and its fit with social work’s person-in-environment perspective are each explored. The intersection of the common factors approach with the evidence-based practice movement is examined. The role of common factors in the psychotherapy integration movement is also discussed. The implications of the common factors approach for research, policy, and practice in social work are identified.


Borderline Personality Disorder  

Gloria Hegge

The historical development of the borderline concept is traced up through the development of the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Treatments for BPD during the 1970s and 1980s are discussed, including the object relations theories of Margaret Mahler and James Masterson, as well as trauma theory described by Judith Herman. Three evidence-based treatments (EBTs) that have emerged from the 1990s to the present time are described, as well as findings from brain imaging techniques and how new EBTs and neuroimaging have changed the view of this disorder.


Perlman, Helen Harris  

Kenneth S. Carpenter

Helen Harris Perlman (1905–2004) was a caseworker for the Chicago Jewish Service Bureau and joined the faculty of the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, in 1945. Her textbook Social Casework: A Problem Solving Process is still used.


Minuchin, Salvador  

Catheleen Jordan and David Cory

Salvador Minuchin, MD (1921–2017), was a founder of structural family therapy, challenging the prevailing Freudian individual therapy that was the norm in the 1960s. Utilizing live team supervision, structural family therapy focused on relationships between family members with the therapist assuming an action-oriented approach. Minuchin offered direct help to restructure dysfunctional family behaviors and a faulty family hierarchy.


Gestalt Therapy  

Clayton T. Shorkey and Michael Uebel

The entry defines Gestalt therapy, including brief history, major influences, contributors, and current status of Gestalt therapy in terms of memberships and journals. Key concepts are outlined, and the effectiveness and potential for Gestalt therapy's status as an evidence-based practice is framed in relation to recent overviews of empirical research and to what is needed in the future for further research. While the current literature in social work does not reflect a strong emphasis on Gestalt, we emphasize some of the philosophical and ethical compatibilities between these approaches.