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Article

Betty J. Ruth, Sarah Sisco, and Jamie Wyatt Marshall

Public health social work is a subdiscipline within social work that uses multifaceted transdisciplinary approaches to promote health equity and mitigate human health problems. Originating in the early 20th century, public health social work applies social work and public health theories, frameworks, research, and collaborative practice to address contemporary health issues. Epidemiologically informed and characterized by prevention, health promotion, and other integrative practices, public health social work is highly relevant to pervasive 21st-century challenges, such as health inequity, behavioral health integration, chronic disease, health reform implementation, and global health. With its strong focus on health impact and population health, public health social work is central to the profession’s viability and success in the post–Affordable Care Act (ACA) health environment.

Article

Toba Schwaber Kerson

Health is a need, a basic requirement for life. Needs can become rights when bodies of people, usually governments or organizations such as the World Health Organization sanction them. While many have declared health as a right, the greatest burden of illness continues to be carried by minority and medically underserved populations. Also, industrialization, urbanization, economic development, and food market globalization have brought with them the poor health habits that place people at risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Improved health habits and universal health care coverage would help to address the health needs of all.

Article

Juliette Silva

Julian Samora (1920–1996) was a researcher and scholar in sociology and Mexican American studies and the first Mexican American in the fields of sociology and anthropology. He was professor of sociology at the University of Notre Dame.

Article

Dolores Gonzalez Molina de la Caro (1910–1979) was a pioneer in mental health training, public welfare, public health, school health, and university counseling in Puerto Rico. She was director of the Bureau of Medical Social Work and Mental Health Program.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Martha May Eliot (1891–1978) was an educator and public health official. She was the first woman president of the American Public Health Association. She became chief medical consultant for UNICEF in 1947. She was later assistant director general of WHO, and the U.S. representative to the executive board of UNICEF.

Article

Ruth Irelan Knee

Milton Wittman (1915–1994) was a social worker, writer, and leader in social work, public health, and mental health. He played a key role in the expansion of opportunities for social work education and for the involvement of social workers in the provision of mental health services.

Article

Tanya Smith Brice

Jay Carrington Chunn, II, (1938–2013), was a leader in social work education, a professor, and an author who focused on public health and policy within urban populations.

Article

Vimla Nadkarni and Roopashri Sinha

The entry outlines a historical and global overview of women’s health in the context of human rights and public health activism. It unravels social myths, traditional norms, and stereotypes impacting women’s health because social workers must understand the diverse factors affecting women’s health in a continually changing and globalized world. There is need for more inclusive feminist and human rights models to study and advocate women’s health. There is as much scope for working with women in a more holistic manner as there is for researching challenging issues and environments shaping women’s health.

Article

Jessica Euna Lee

Within its 150-year history, public health has grown from a focus on local communities to include countrywide, then international, and now global perspectives. Drawing upon the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, this article provides an overview of global public health within the broadest possible context of the world and all of its peoples. Also provided are the global burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life years, global health statistics, current health priorities, and recommendations for action by social workers and other health professionals.

Article

Sara Harmon

Homer Folks (1867–1967) was a social work pioneer, recognizing illness as a major cause of poverty. His public service activities included the care of dependent children, mental hygiene, tuberculosis control, public assistance programs, social research, and corrections and parole.

Article

Sandra Edmonds Crewe and Julie Guyot-Diangone

This article provides an overview of the phenomenon of labeling and stigma. Research studies are used to illuminate the many ways devalued or discredited identities negatively affect the health and well-being of stigmatized groups and additionally burden the socially and economically marginalized. In addition to conveying an understanding of the social process by which a stigma is developed and the role that culture plays in defining and determining any given stigma, this article offers ways in which social work professionals may counter stigma through education/awareness campaigns and in routine client interactions. Anti-stigma work is presented from social justice and ethical perspectives. Stigma as a social construct is discussed, along with its link to discrimination and prejudice. The article helps to unpack the meaning of stigma, including descriptions of the various forms, levels, and dimensions it may take, affecting all spheres of life, including the social, psychological, spiritual, and physical.

Article

Gloria Hegge

Rene Sand (1877–1953), Belgian social worker and physician, was best known in the field of social work for being co-founder of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) in 1928, and serving as its president from 1946 to 1953.

Article

James Midgley

Lord William Beveridge (1879–1963) was one of the founders of the British welfare state. His report of 1942 formed the basis for the Labour Government's social policies between 1945 and 1950 and fostered the creation of Britain's national health services.

Article

Victoria M. Rizzo and Rebekah Kukowski

In 1965, Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act were passed, creating Medicare and Medicaid and laying the foundation for US healthcare policy. Medicare was originally created to meet the specific medical needs of adults age 65 and older. Currently, individuals with end-stage renal disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and other disabilities may also receive Medicare, regardless of age. Medicaid was established to provide a basic level of medical care to specific categories of people who are poor, including pregnant women, children, and the aged. As part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), states are provided with the opportunity to expand Medicaid to close the coverage gap for public health insurance. This entry provides explanations of Medicaid and Medicare and associated social healthcare programs in the United States. An overview of significant programming developments and current issues of legislative consideration are also provided.

Article

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Sarah Fernandis (1863–1951) was a civic leader and organizer of public health activities in Black communities. She founded the first black social settlement in the United States. In 1920, she became the first Black social worker employed in the City Venereal Disease Clinic of the Baltimore Health Department.

Article

Alvin L. Schorr

Leonard Withington Mayo (1899–1993) was concerned with child welfare, mental retardation, and public health. He was dean and vice president at Western Reserve University, professor at Colby College, and served on four White House Conferences on Children and Youth.

Article

Maryann Syers

Richard Morris Titmuss (1907–1973) was a scholar, administrator, and educator who developed the subject area of social policy and administration as an intellectually respectable field of inquiry. He was chair of Social Administration at the London School of Economics.

Article

Sadye L. M. Logan

Alma T. Young (1930–2012) was employed in 1960 by Mount Sinai’s Department of Social Work and worked as the director of quality assurance until her retirement in 1998. Her unwavering dedication, vision, commitment, and astute leadership gave rise to programs and services such as New Alternatives for Children (NAC). She was also the founding member of the social work section of the American Public Health Association.

Article

Frances Feldman and Haluk Soydan

Emory Bogardus (1882–1973) established the first Sociology Department in the West in 1915. His study on “social distance” is still used to examine cultural, ethnic, and religious attitudes. In 1920 he founded Alpha Kappa Delta, the sociology honor society.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Lillian Wald (1867–1940) was a pioneer in public health nursing. In 1893, she co-founded the Henry Street Settlement which provided professional nursing care to poor people at little or no cost. She is credited with the proposal that led to the establishment of the Children's Bureau in 1912.