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Article

Quantitative Research  

Shenyang Guo

This entry describes the definition, history, theories, and applications of quantitative methods in social work research. Unlike qualitative research, quantitative research emphasizes precise, objective, and generalizable findings. Quantitative methods are based on numerous probability and statistical theories, with rigorous proofs and support from both simulated and empirical data. Regression analysis plays a paramountly important role in contemporary statistical methods, which include event history analysis, generalized linear modeling, hierarchical linear modeling, propensity score matching, and structural equation modeling. Quantitative methods can be employed in all stages of a scientific inquiry ranging from sample selection to final data analysis.

Article

Womanism and Domestic Violence  

Selena T. Rodgers

Domestic violence is a public health problem shown to inflict severe mental and physical injury on millions of individuals and has considerable social costs. Absent from the literature is an examination of womanism ideologies, which provide a greater understanding of the full praxis that black women who experience domestic violence engage. Drawing from initial conceptualizations of womanism and later contributions of Africana womanism, this article brings into focus pervasive acts of violence perpetrated against black women, their racial loyalty to protect black men, and the limitations of existing domestic violence models and interventions. This entry addresses how these three interconnected areas are treated within the conceptual framework of womanism. An overview of violence against black women reveals the historical and contemporary forms of knowledge and praxis that have sought to overcome the social problem of intimate partner abuse, including the social construction of controlling images and the Power and Control Wheel (The Duluth Model). This entry also examines the prevalence of violence perpetrated against black women and compounding factors. In addition, this author considers the Violence Against Women Act and its consequences on laws and policies that affect the race, gender, and class experiences of black women coping with domestic violence. Also analyzed is the quintessential role of demographics, the culture of domestic violence, and international debates about womanism, including how black women intellectuals are prioritizing race-empowerment perspectives and a reference point to articulate healthy black relationships are prioritized. The article also reviews social work practice with black women victims/survivors of domestic violence and their families.

Article

Palliative Care  

Terry Altilio and Dana Ribeiro

Palliative care is a burgeoning specialty in medicine, nursing, social work and chaplaincy which privileges patient-centered, family-focused care provided across settings. Rather than a singular focus on a disease or an organ of the body, clinicians serve persons with serious illness with an approach that honors the whole person, their priorities, values and goals. In contrast to hospice care, palliative care is accessible at any point along the continuum of illness and is often provided concurrently with disease-modifying or potentially curative therapies as in the treatment of many persons with various cancers. Palliative care clinicians often work in interdisciplinary teams who collaborate with primary teams such as oncology or cardiology to identify and respond to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of patients and their families. Palliative care programs are extending beyond the confines of acute care settings to venues such as outpatient clinics, home and extended care facilities. Signal events have contributed to the history, evolving role and presence of social work in this specialty. Palliative social work brings values and skills that reflect a whole person in environment perspective that is elegantly congruous with the palliative approach to care.

Article

Radlińska, Helena  

Andrea Schmelz

Helena Radlińska’s (1879–1954) pioneering roles in social work education, political and social activism, and her visionary contribution to theory, practice, and research of social work in Poland and beyond its borders are reviewed. Radlińska’s conceptualization of social work aimed at community development and social change, and addressed the social conditions of individuals as well as their potential. According to Radlińska, social workers assisted in overcoming difficulties by empowering individuals and communities. Hence, education and research in social work needed to build on an interdisciplinary approach and the personal development of students as educators, group facilitators, and community mobilizers. Based on the principle of critical reflection with the self and the world, Radlinka’s social work ouvre outlasted the socialist period and underwent an international renaissance in the postsocialist era. Radlińska has inspired social workers to fight for an inclusive and antipopulist future in Poland’s communities.

Article

International Social Work: Overview  

Lynne M. Healy

This article presents an overview of definitions of international social work, relevant theories, the history of the field, and current practice roles. Definitional debates and critiques of international social work are discussed, as the term international social work has been a contested one. Scholars have defined international social work variously as a specialized area of practice, as the integrated global profession, as the exchange of people and ideas across borders, and as a more general perspective or worldview. The concluding section highlights some of the current challenges facing the field: developing relevant career tracks in international social work, strengthening representation of the profession at the global level, specifying the universal elements of social work, and continuing to clarify the concept of international social work.

Article

Davis, John Eldon  

Catheleen Jordan

John Eldon Davis, MSW, was a National Association of Social Work pioneer. His career spanned four decades and saw a number of “firsts” for social work. His pioneering efforts were in introducing interdisciplinary teams to social work services, training staff and students in various settings, and introducing social work services to in-patient mental health settings, HIV treatment, and international adoptions.

Article

Moser, Mentona  

Andrea Schmelz

Mentona Moser (1874–1971) was a pioneer of social work in Switzerland. Following the ideas of the settlement movement, Moser initiated and contributed to fundamental social welfare activities in Zurich until the end of World War I. As a communist, from the early 1920s on, she worked on several projects of radical social work in the context of the Red Aid.

Article

Group Work  

Ronald W. Toseland and Heather Horton

This entry begins with a brief history of group work in the United States. Next, there is a description of the wide range of treatment and task groups used by social workers. This is followed by a discussion of group dynamics, diversity and social justice issues. Then, there is a brief overview of the developmental stages that groups go through and widely used practice models. The chapter concludes with a brief review of the evidence base for the effectiveness of group work practice.

Article

Asian Americans: Chinese  

Yuhwa Eva Lu

Chinese Americans were the first group of immigrants from Asia who came to the United States in the mid-19th century. A second wave of immigrants came following the Immigrant Act of 1965. These new immigrants had more diverse backgrounds and introduced new patterns of lifestyle. Since 1965, the Chinese population has increased 10-fold to reaching 2.9 million in the 2000 census, becoming 1% of the total U.S. population. Chinese Americans are in a varied background and with diverse identities. Two-thirds are foreign-born and experiencing stereotype, prejudice, and acculturation adjustment.

Article

Volunteer Management  

Eleanor L. Brilliant

Social work in the United States emerged out of the work of organized volunteers in the late 19th century. However, the search for professionalization, together with an emphasis on publicly funded social welfare after the 1930s, led social workers to devaluate volunteer activity. Since the 1970s volunteer activity has greatly increased in the United States, and now plays a significant part in American cultural life as well as in the delivery of human services. In recent years volunteerism has been recognized for its demonstrable contribution to the American economy in addition to its fundamental role in a democratic society. Social workers are involved in many ways with volunteers in a multitude of roles and diverse settings and need to understand how to manage and work with a wide range of volunteers.

Article

Settlements and Neighborhood Centers  

Robert Fisher, Michael Fabricant, and Lukas Champagne

Settlement houses are one prism through which the contested history of macro social work can be viewed. The early settlements spearheaded social reform while building community solidarity. Historic shifts in the political economy changed the work of settlements, particularly the development of neighborhood houses. The dynamic interplay in the past decades between the corporatization of not-for-profit culture, shrinking government funding, and a redefinition of settlement services have particularly affected settlement work. The traditional view of settlements and neighborhood centers, that located people of color, especially Black people who addressed structural barriers and offered transformative solutions, outside its gaze has missed a good deal of history. Needless to say, this is not meant to be an all-inclusive listing of resources and readings nor the last word on settlement macro practice and macro challenges.

Article

International Social Work: Education  

M. C. Terry Hokenstad

Social work education's development and focus around the world reflects the increasing reality of global interdependence in the initial decade of the 21st century. A number of countries have recently initiated programs of education for social workers, and there are an increasing number of international exchange programs for students and faculty. There continues to be considerable diversity in the focus and structure of educational programs across nations, but a recently developed set of Global Standards for Social Work Education and Training provides a common framework that can be voluntarily applied and adapted to local conditions.