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Bethune, Mary McLeod  

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Mary McLeod Bethune (1875–1955) was a teacher committed to the education and development of Black women. Her role as president of the National Association of Colored Women led to the founding of the National Council of Negro Women in 1935.


Social Policy: History (1900–1950)  

Iris Carlton-LaNey

This entry traces American social welfare development from the 1890s to 1950. It also includes social work's participation and response to need during two critical times in American history: the Progressive Era and the New Deal. Social reformers were instrumental in the development of social legislation, including the establishment of the Children's Bureau as well as the development of a public welfare system at the state level. America's response to human suffering left many groups, such American Indians, African Americans, and Asians, marginalized. In response, African Americans established a parallel system of private relief through organizations such as the National Urban League, unlike the other racial groups.


Roosevelt, Eleanor  

Fred Newdom

Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962), wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, pursued her own work investigating social conditions and the programs designed to address them. She served as the U.S. representative to the General Assembly of the newly formed United Nations.