Online therapy is the delivery of supportive and therapeutic services over the Internet. Online therapy offers the advantages of convenience and increased access to services. Service delivery may be problematic due to ethical concerns and legal liability. Limited research supports the efficacy of online therapy for a variety of health and social concerns. Increased use of the Internet by consumers and human service agencies will likely see growing use of online therapy and require training for workers and development of new policies and procedures for online service delivery.
Margo A. Jackson
Despite the significant life and work experiences that a growing number of older adults have to contribute to the workforce, pervasive ageism operates in overt and covert ways to discriminate against older workers in hiring and workplace practices. This article provides a current overview of definitions, prevalence, types, and effects of ageism in the U.S. workplace. For social workers counseling older adult victims of workplace ageism, this article discusses theories, foundational knowledge, and ongoing self-awareness and training needed for bias awareness. Counseling strategies and resources are highlighted, including coping and resilience strategies to counteract ageist stereotypes and discrimination, facilitate job-seeking support, and advocate for older workers by promoting awareness and serving as a resource for employers to reduce workplace ageism.
J. Christopher Hall
A history and description of narrative therapy is provided including empirical research, theoretical underpinnings, and the clinical process of the practice. Narrative is a postmodern, person-centered practice that promotes change through the exploration of narrative. A narrative is a series of events, linked in sequence, through time, according to a specific plot. In this approach identity is understood to be a narrative, a story of self, and narrative techniques involve exploring the meanings attributed to life events, deconstructing, and reconstructing the meaning of those events in ways that are of benefit to the client. Narrative practice is a practice of liberation in that problems are viewed as not being located inside people but in the social discourses that clients have been recruited into accepting in their lives and by which they may be self-subjugating. Narrative is a respectful, non-blaming approach, which places people as the experts of their lives, and harnesses their innate strengths, skills, and resiliencies to re-story, or re-author themselves in a more positive and enriching way.
Kosta N. Kalogerogiannis, Richard Hibbert, Lydia M. Franco, Taiwanna Messam, and Mary M. McKay
For over 20 years, social workers have been involved in service delivery for HIV and AIDS infected and affected individuals. It is estimated that more than 1 million people are living with HIV or AIDS in the United States. The rates of HIV infections continue to rise, with more than 40,000 individuals being diagnosed each year in the United States. This entry explores the current trends in HIV primary prevention, secondary prevention, and counseling and psychotherapy services for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.