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Sunny Sinha

Dorothy Irene Height (1912–2010) was best known for her leadership positions with National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) and Young Women’s Christian Association’s (YWCA), as she was instrumental in directing the efforts of both these organizations to address the issues of racial justice and gender equality.


Diana R. Garland

The term “Christian social services” refers to the involvement of persons and agencies that identify themselves as having a Christian faith orientation that motivates their response to the material and interpersonal needs of persons not met by family or the larger community. This entry describes formalized services provided through organizations, including congregations, as well as agencies and organizations affiliated with congregations.


Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Elizabeth Ross Haynes (1883–1953) worked to improve the quality of life in the Black community through volunteer work and employment in social services. Her philosophy is communicated in her publications Unsung Heroes (1921) and The Black Boy of Atlanta (1952).


John F. Longres

Eduard Christian Lindeman (1885–1953), a scholar of social philosophy and group methods, was on the faculty of the New York School of Social Work until retirement in 1950. He was president of the National Conference of Social Work in 1952.


Brenda F. McGadney

Benjamin L. Hooks (1925–2010) was best known as an African American civil rights leader, lawyer, Baptist minister, gifted orator, and a businessman (co-founder of a bank and chicken fast-food franchises), who was executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (1977–1992). Hooks was appointed by President Richard Nixon as one of five commissioners (first African American) of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1972, commencing in 1973 with confirmation by the Senate.


Sadye L. M. Logan

Ella Josephine Baker (1903–1986) was a consummate organizer and activist who played an active role in shaping the civil and human rights movements in the United States of America from 1930 through the 1980s.