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Article

Housing  

Tracy M. Soska

Housing, especially homeownership and affordable housing, remains essential to the American Dream but also among our most challenging social issues, particularly given the collapse of the housing market in the early 21st century. Housing and affordable housing are inextricably linked to both our national economic crisis and our wavering social policies. Housing is both symptomatic of and a catalyst for overarching social and economic issues, such as poverty, economic and educational inequality, and racial disparities, and it remains an unmet need for a significant portion of our population, such as the elderly, disabled, victims of abuse, those aging out of child welfare, veterans, ex-offenders, and others who encounter unique difficulties and lack of supportive services and service coordination. Advancing comprehensive and coordinated housing policies and programs remains important for social work and in the struggle for decent and affordable housing for all.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Graham Taylor (1851–1938) founded the Chicago Commons settlement house. He taught social economics at the Chicago Theological Seminary, initiating such projects as drafting protective labor legislation, promoting better housing conditions, and developing playground facilities.

Article

Bonnie Young Laing

By the year 2035, slums may become the primary living environment for the world’s urban dwellers. This entry explores key definitions, causes, and characteristics of slums in the global arena, along with the types of social-work practice and general community development approaches being used to catalyze action to decrease the prevalence of slums. Core strategies include using pro–poor planning efforts that empower slum dwellers, creating affordable housing, and otherwise transitioning urban slums into vibrant communities. Concluding thoughts and further considerations for practice are offered to close the entry.

Article

James Midgley

Lord William Beveridge (1879–1963) was one of the founders of the British welfare state. His report of 1942 formed the basis for the Labour Government's social policies between 1945 and 1950 and fostered the creation of Britain's national health services.

Article

Darlyne Bailey

Arthur J. Naparstek (1939–2004), community planning expert, worked in neighborhood revitalization and created the federal Hope VI program that changed U.S. public housing. He was dean and professor at Case Western Reserve University's Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences (1983–2004).

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch (1867–1951) founded the Greenwich House social settlement in New York City. She was professor in social economy at Barnard College and associate professor in social economy at Teachers College of Columbia University.

Article

Frances Feldman and Haluk Soydan

Emory Bogardus (1882–1973) established the first Sociology Department in the West in 1915. His study on “social distance” is still used to examine cultural, ethnic, and religious attitudes. In 1920 he founded Alpha Kappa Delta, the sociology honor society.

Article

John F. Longres

Mary Ellen Richmond (1861–1928) formulated the first comprehensive statement of direct social work practice principles. She founded the Public Charities Association, the juvenile court, and the Housing Association, and helped to develop teaching materials for Charity Organization Societies nationwide.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Edward T. Devine(1867–1948) was a writer, educator, and administrator. As general secretary of the New York Charity Organization Society, he formed the Wayfarer's Lodge and the Tenement House Committee. He was Director of the New York School of Philanthropy.

Article

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Campbell Carrington Johnson (1895–1968) worked to improve military services and social conditions for Black people. He worked at the national Selective Services for 28 years and in 1946 was awarded the Army Commendation Ribbon and the Army Distinguished Service Medal.

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Rosalie A. Kane and Mingyang Zheng

Article

Yin-Ling Irene Wong and Claudia J. Vogelsang

Homelessness is a major social problem in the United States. The article starts with an overview of homelessness in American history, followed by the definition of contemporary homelessness, its prevalence, and the composition and diverse characteristics of the homeless population. Contrasting perspectives on what causes homelessness are discussed, while the multidimensionality of the homeless experience is explored. The unique experiences of three subpopulations, including homeless persons who are involved in criminal justice, emerging youth leaving foster care, and older homeless persons are further featured. Public and community responses to homelessness are examined, highlighting evidence-based and emerging practices that aim at reducing and preventing homelessness. A discussion of international homelessness follows, as homelessness is recognized as a global issue affecting people living in poverty in both the developed and developing world. The article concludes with discussion of the implications for social work.

Article

Dorinda N. Noble

Children are interesting, resilient people, whose lives are often perilous. Social workers deal extensively with children and families, and with policies that affect children, to help children and families overcome family disruption, poverty, and homelessness. Social workers also provide mental health care while working to ensure that children get medical care. Schools are areas of practice for social workers dealing with children. The issues of ethical practice and social justice for children are complex.