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Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Mary Elizabeth Switzer (1900–1971) was an administrator who became head of the Social and Rehabilitation Service in 1967. She influenced the evolution and expansion of federally funded services to those in need and improved services to people with disabilities.

Article

Pamela Aneesah Nadir

Zakat or obligatory charity is a foundation of Muslim social services. Social services with Muslims date back more than 1,400 years to the time of the Prophet Muhammad. His biography reflects his involvement in the care of the poor, widows, and orphans and engagement in social justice for women and minorities. Muslim communities throughout the United States are providing social services for Muslims; however, an institutionalized network of professional social services sensitive to the needs of Muslims is in the developmental stage.

Article

The social work profession originated in volunteer efforts to address the social question, the paradox of increasing poverty in an increasingly productive and prosperous economy, in Europe and North America during the late 19th century. By 1900, working for social betterment had become an occupation, and social work achieved professional status by 1930. By 1920, social workers could be found in hospitals and public schools, as well as in child welfare agencies, family agencies, and settlement hoses. During the next decade, social workers focused on the problems of children and families. As a result of efforts to conceptualize social work method, expand social work education programs, and develop a stable funding base for voluntary social service programs, social work achieved professional status by the 1930s. The Great Depression and World War II refocused professional concerns, as the crises of depression and war demanded the attention of social workers. After the war, mental health concerns became important as programs for veterans and the general public emphasized the provision of inpatient and outpatient mental health services. In the 1960s, social workers again confronted the problem of poverty. Since then, the number of social workers has grown even as the profession's influence on social welfare policy has waned.

Article

Michael Reisch

Joseph Vigilante (1925–2005) made contributions to the fields of international social work and neighborhood-based social services and promoted the rights of people with developmental and learning disabilities. He became Dean of Adelphi's School of Social Work in 1962.

Article

Unions  

Howard Karger

This article deals with the goals and tensions between professionalism and social work unionization. This article addresses obstacles to the unionization of social workers, such as the mixed messages about unionization inherent in the National Association of Social Workers’ Code of Ethics, the incipient antiunion sentiment within social work (which partly explains the dearth of social work strikes when compared with teachers’ strikes), the impact of privatized social services on unionization, and the chilling effects of a business union perspective on professional issues that concern social workers. This article calls for a fusion between union and professional concerns.

Article

Kenneth S. Carpenter

Helen Harris Perlman (1905–2004) was a caseworker for the Chicago Jewish Service Bureau and joined the faculty of the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, in 1945. Her textbook Social Casework: A Problem Solving Process is still used.

Article

David G. Gil

Violet Sieder (1909–1988) was a social welfare educator and leader. She taught social planning, community organization, and rehabilitation at the Florence Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University. She organized the Massachusetts Human Services Coalition, serving as its first president (1975–1981).

Article

James Midgley

Lord William Beveridge (1879–1963) was one of the founders of the British welfare state. His report of 1942 formed the basis for the Labour Government's social policies between 1945 and 1950 and fostered the creation of Britain's national health services.

Article

Mike Fabricant and Robert Fisher

Settlement houses are a prism though which the turbulent history of social work can be viewed. This article specifically examines the genesis of social settlements over the past century. It describes the early work of the settlements in spearheading social reform and building community solidarity. It explores the relationship between historic shifts in the political economy and the changed work of settlements, particularly the development of neighborhood houses. Finally, it emphasizes the dynamic interplay in the past twenty years between corporatization of not-for-profit culture, shrinking government funding, and the redefinition of settlement services.

Article

Jean K. Quam

Benjamin Emanuel Youngdahl (1897–1970) was a public welfare administrator, educator, and lecturer. He influenced the social work profession during his career as president of the American Association of Schools of Social Work, the American Association of Social Workers, and the National Conference on Social Welfare.

Article

Sadye L. M. Logan

David M. Austin (1923–2008), who served as Bert Kruger Smith Centennial Professor at the University of Texas at Austin School of Social Work (now University of Texas at Austin Steve Hicks School of Social Work), has left an outstanding legacy in the students and colleagues whom he has mentored and inspired. He was a tireless leader, practical researcher, and brilliant scholar in the field of social work.

Article

Leah Igdalsky

Social workers working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and their families require an understanding of the disabilities themselves as well as the larger context of disability in society. Individuals with disabilities face particular risks for poverty and poor healthcare, and it is essential for social workers to understand the complex web of social services available. Furthermore, social workers often work not only with the person with a disability but also with their caregiving families.

Article

Nancy Morrow-Howell and Leslie Hasche

Despite high levels of functioning among older adults, chronic health conditions lead to impairment and the need for help. Family members provide most of the assistance; yet formal services such as in-home personal and homemaker services, congregate and home-delivered meals, adult day services, employment and educational services, transportation, nursing homes, assisted and supportive living facilities, legal and financial services, and case management are available. Even with the growing number and type of services, unequal access and uneven quality persist. In these settings, social workers develop and administer programs, provide clinical care, offer case management and discharge planning, and contribute to policy development.

Article

This entry reviews major intraorganizational and extraorganizational management strategies found in the prescriptive as well as empirically based literature that promote organizational effectiveness and responsiveness to clients. Obtaining support and stakeholder management constitute two major areas for extraorganizational practices. Among the most often discussed targets for intraorganizational management interventions are leadership practices, board practices, organizational culture, organizational structure, and worker attitudes.

Article

Eleanor L. Brilliant

Volunteer activity is linked to the concept of American democracy; it is also the source of early social work in the nineteenth century. Volunteering is action taken by personal choice and generally without expectation of pay; it takes many forms. In 2006, it represented over 8 billion hours of organization-related service in the United States. There are costs as well as benefits in volunteering. In the human services, volunteers have a variety of roles from serving on leadership Boards to providing direct service; tension may exist between professional staff and volunteers, and volunteer management is important for effective use of volunteers.

Article

Dorothy M. Pearson

Carl A. Scott (1928–1986) was assistant professor at the New York University School of Social Work. As a senior consultant on minority groups at the Council on Social Work Education he developed programs directed toward enhancing minority presence in curricula.

Article

Kimberly Strom-Gottfried

Continuing education (CE) refers to an array of opportunities by which professionals can augment existing knowledge and skills. CE is essential for professional competence, career development, and compliance with licensing rules and other regulations. CE is offered through a variety of auspices, methods, and venues. Advances in instructional technology and electronic communication have further expanded access to CE opportunities. Ongoing challenges in CE include strategies for assuring quality in CE programming and adequately evaluating skill and knowledge acquisition.

Article

Samuel S. David, Priscilla Gibson, and Patience Togo Malm

Language mediates every aspect of social work, and the ability to communicate effectively with and about clients is a paramount responsibility that rests with the social worker. This responsibility extends to clients who do not speak, understand, read, or write fluently in the dominant language, either because they speak other languages or because of communication-related disabilities. This category may include individuals with learning disabilities, speech disorders, aphasia, autism spectrum disorders, specific language impairment, and physical impairments that impact language production, among other conditions. Primary concerns include disparities in access to services; the need for training on working with interdisciplinary teams; minimizing bias, micro-aggressions, and stereotyping; and issues related to translation, interpretation, and intercultural communication. In addition to these concerns, linguistically diverse populations are often excluded from research, resulting in gaps in knowledge about their needs. Service accommodations for language minorities tend to focus on translation and interpretation; however, research suggests that social workers also need to understand and guard against unconscious bias, and learn to use affirmative language to support the well-being of clients rather than pathologizing them. Clients with communication disabilities, on the other hand, may have distinct or overlapping needs, and service organizations rarely address the language support needs of these two populations within one unified framework. Service providers may waste precious time and effort navigating multiple, overlapping policy directives. Information on the policy context in the United States and the European Union related to language rights and language access provides a background for this topic.

Article

Gaynor Yancey and Diana R. Garland

The social work profession has deep roots in religious practices and organizations. Congregations have served as viable contexts for social work practice from the very beginnings of the profession. In this entry, we examine congregational social work as a field of practice through discussion of definitions, historical development, characteristics of congregations, academic preparation of social workers for this field of practice, review of the literature and research, and ways of strengthening the future of social work in this field of practice.

Article

The Caribbean is a multiethnic, multilingual archipelago of islands and mainland territories, with similar experiences of European colonialism and modern-day globalization. The countries generally enjoy stable political systems but grapple with many of the problems experienced by countries elsewhere. These include vulnerability to natural disasters, migration, violence, and drug abuse. Lifestyle diseases such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease are on the increase, and the region is second only to sub-Saharan Africa in the prevalence of HIV and AIDS. In the English-speaking Caribbean, social work is well established, and social service provisioning is modeled on the traditional welfare state approach. A few countries have achieved universal levels of social service delivery.