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Article

Lawrence Shulman

traditional social work supervision, which presumes a strong professional relationship between supervisor and supervisee. Kaiser ( 1997 ) maintained what follows: Most would agree that a positive relationship between supervisor and supervisee is important if the supervision is to be effective. Although the tasks of supervision appear to follow common sense, those who have been either supervisors or supervisees observe that these tasks are often quite complicated in the real world. Two major blocks to the effective and smooth functioning of supervision are contextual issues

Article

Yi-Shih Cheng

the provision of material support and mental counseling. During the implementation of the project, all social workers are supervised by means of case conferences, which are held twice a week. Each session lasts three hours. In the case conferences, the social workers report and discuss their caseloads based on the three dimensions of analysis, diagnosis, and treatment; subsequently, two supervisors offer their opinions and the chief supervisor formulates conclusions. The family-counseling model has become the primary model by which the Taiwan government implements

Article

Amanda Duffy Randall and Donna DeAngelis

candidate for licensure. Supervision for the purpose of qualifying for licensure is one of the last gates through which a candidate must pass to qualify for a license. The supervisor is accountable to the regulatory board for the supervision, practice, and evaluation of the licensure applicant, in addition to being accountable to the supervisee and the agency. Most regulatory boards have specific requirements, especially for clinical supervision—number of hours, qualifications of the supervisor, individual supervision requirements and group supervision limits, provisions

Article

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Williams, Anita Rose ( 1891–1983 ) Anita Rose Williams was the first Black Catholic social worker in the United States and the first Black supervisor employed by a Baltimore, Maryland, agency. Born in Baltimore, she had no formal education beyond high school, although she attended sociology lectures at Johns Hopkins University. During the early 1900s, she did volunteer work in family and child welfare agencies. In 1921 she restructured the city's four Black parishes as the Bernard Atkins Organization, which promoted economic and social assistance to Catholic

Article

Jeffrey A. Butts

attitude toward the offender. In highly visible or notorious cases, justice officials may be reluctant to use community supervision even if the probability of re-arrest appears to be low and viable treatment alternatives exist. Assessment The use of community-based supervision offers an effective balance between protecting the public and controlling or rehabilitating individual offenders. Without access to a full range of community-based supervision options, the justice system would be able to use only incarceration for convicted offenders and adjudicated delinquents

Article

Wan-I Lin

taught courses in introduction to social work, social casework, psychiatric social work, medical social work, and social work supervision for twenty-six years. During his years teaching, Liao was a prolific writer. He published many inspiring textbooks, including Dynamic Social Work ( 1973 ), Dynamic Casework ( 1977 ), Medical Social Work ( 1991 ), Social Work Management ( 1991 ), Psychiatric Social Work ( 1993 ), Social Work Supervision ( 1993 ), and Mental Health ( 1993 ). He was one of the most important proponents for adoption of psychosocial therapy

Article

Lincoln , she supervised a systematic postwar search for missing prisoners. In 1870 Barton worked at the front with the German Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War and was awarded the Iron Cross. Returning to the United States, she organized the American National Committee of the Red Cross (later the American National Red Cross) and became its president. In 1884 , as U.S. delegate to the Red Cross Conference in Geneva, she introduced the “American Amendment,” ensuring that the Red Cross would provide relief in peacetime as well as in war. She supervised relief work

Article

Maryann Syers

in improving the standards of practice, supervision, and teaching and contributed to the theory and practice of group social work. Born and raised in New York City, Schwartz was active in youth group work throughout his early career. After graduating from Brooklyn College in 1939 , Schwartz served as youth director at the Young Men's Hebrew Association ( YMHA ) Community Center in Lynn, Massachusetts ( 1943–1944 ); director of activities for the Jewish Community Center in Bridgeport, Connecticut ( 1944–1945 ); and supervisor of the senior division of Bronx House.

Article

Michàlle E. Mor Barak and Dnika Jones Travis

and social support refers to employee perceptions of a supervisor's ability to provide support, respond to emotional needs and help deal with job-related stress. Task assistance involves employee perceptions of level of supportive supervision directly related to job functioning, and supervisor's ability to provide tangible, work-related supports. Lastly, interpersonal supervisory relationship involves the perceptions of the quality of working relationship with supervisors, and satisfaction with supervision. Creating a Diverse and Inclusive Workplace This area has

Article

Naomi Farber

remains through his exceptional work as scholar, teacher, and advocate for the increased rigorous professionalization of social work. Through his large corpus of published scholarship, Kadushin contributed to the development of professional practice and knowledge in the areas of supervision, interviewing, and, perhaps most significantly, child welfare. In addition to scores of journal articles and published lectures, Kadushin’s six books, translated into several languages, have informed both direct practice and policy. The conceptual framework of his book, Child Welfare

Article

Victor L. Garcia Toro

science degree in 1944 and a doctorate in social work in 1953 , both from the University of Pittsburgh. She worked with the Puerto Rico Emergency Relief Administration from 1933 to 1940 as “town head,” junior social worker, director, social supervisor, and chief researcher. From 1940 to 1944 she worked as supervisor of special projects and was chief of scientific research and statistics at the Health Department. From 1944 to 1974 she worked as professor, director of the research unit, and director of the School of Social Work of the University of Puerto Rico

Article

Maryann Syers

believed that students should have a wide range of firsthand field experience. Out of just such an experience, working with a troubled child in foster placement, she wrote Casework Treatment of a Child ( 1942 ). Her contributions to social work education include Learning through Supervision ( 1954 ). Garrett's influential book, Interviewing, Its Principles and Methods ( 1942 ), was translated into 12 languages, and her Counseling Methods for Personnel Workers ( 1945 ) helped to extend the use of casework principles to the new field of industrial counseling.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

Perkins Institute), which became internationally known under his leadership. In addition to his pioneering educational efforts for blind, deaf, and retarded people, Howe supported reform for mentally ill people, prisoners, and juvenile offenders. He encouraged investigation and supervision of state charitable and correctional systems. As a result the Massachusetts State Board of Charities was established in 1863. Under Howe's 10-year term as chairperson of the board, conditions in state institutions were studied and reforms were initiated to improve the quality of

Article

Maryann Syers

tor, Richard Lodge was a strong advocate for the essential role of theory in social work. Born in Ohio, Lodge graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1943. He received his MSW from the University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work in 1950 and became a worker, supervisor, and administrator of group work agencies. In 1955 he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, receiving his DSW in 1958. In 1966 he was appointed dean of the School of Social Work at Virginia Commonwealth University, and in 1972 he became

Article

Maryann Syers

crisis intervention and short-term therapy. Rapoport also served as the first United Nations interregional family welfare and family planning advisor in the Middle East. Rapoport wrote numerous articles and two books, Consultation in Social Work Practice ( 1963 ) and The Role of Supervision in Professional Education ( 1963 ). See also Creativity in Social Work: Selected Writings of Lydia Rapoport (1975), edited by Sanford N. Katz.

Article

Larraine M. Edwards

funded services to those in need. Born in Newton, Massachusetts, she graduated from Radcliffe College in 1921. Her federal career began as an assistant secretary with the Minimum Wage Board in Washington, DC. In 1934 she worked with the assistant secretary of the treasury, who supervised the U.S. Public Health Service. Here Switzer developed a concern for the delivery of health, medical, and social services and served in several administrative positions over a 16-year period. In 1950 she was named director of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation ( OVR ) in

Article

John F. Longres

Commonwealth Fellowship and completed her degree in 1926. Following this, she served as director of the Home Finding Department of the Children's Aid Society in Philadelphia, where she was influenced by the “functional” approach to casework. From 1928 to 1932 she was a field work supervisor at the Institute for Child Guidance in New York. She joined the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago in 1932 and remained there until her retirement. Towle's major accomplishments include her work in creating a generic casework curriculum, her study

Article

reason. Supervision In principle, social workers can be named in ethics complaints and lawsuits alleging ethical breaches or negligence by those under their supervision ( Thomas, 2010 ). Social work supervisors should ensure that they meet with supervisees regularly, address appropriate issues, and document the supervision provided. Social work supervisors should avoid any dual relationship with supervisees (e.g., close friendships and intimate relationships) that would compromise their objectivity and constitute a conflict of interest. Supervisors (including

Article

) of 500 BSWs and MSWs in field placements found that two thirds of the respondents had field instructors who never provided live supervision and never used audio or videotape recordings of student performance. In addition, 40% of the students did not receive weekly supervision. Field instructors, in this and related studies of field supervision, were rated most favorably when frequent supervision was provided along with live supervision. Some argue that to do otherwise is unethical ( Haynes, Corey, & Moulton 2003 ). Currently, field instructor assessment of student

Article

Sheila H. Akabas

( Hopkins, 1997 ). The EAP model does not attract women or ethnic or racial minorities in equal proportion to white males, perhaps because the trust a worker needs to share problems with a supervisor and the comfort the supervisor needs to confront a worker and suggest or mandate a referral are most likely to arise when the supervisor resembles the worker, and most supervisors are white males ( Hopkins, 1997 ). Those concerned with ethical and social justice issues therefore, see EAPs as one more way in which the distribution of income in society favors those who