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Article

Supervision  

Lawrence Shulman

traditional social work supervision, which presumes a strong professional relationship between supervisor and supervisee. Kaiser ( 1997 ) maintained what follows: Most would agree that a positive relationship between supervisor and supervisee is important if the supervision is to be effective. Although the tasks of supervision appear to follow common sense, those who have been either supervisors or supervisees observe that these tasks are often quite complicated in the real world. Two major blocks to the effective and smooth functioning of supervision are contextual issues

Article

Managerial Supervision  

John E. Tropman

another as one learns and grows. Great Supervisor/Awful Supervisor Everyone has experienced great and awful supervision. Consider a little exercise: On a piece of paper make two columns, “great supervisor” and “awful supervisor,” and reflect on the good and bad qualities of supervisors in your experience. See what conclusions can be drawn. Explore some writings on these experiences using Google (e.g., Google “great supervisor” and “awful supervisor”). There is a wealth of material on dealing with a bad or toxic supervisor. The 10 tips from The Muse are extremely

Article

Chang, Xiu-Qing  

Yi-Shih Cheng

the provision of material support and mental counseling. During the implementation of the project, all social workers are supervised by means of case conferences, which are held twice a week. Each session lasts three hours. In the case conferences, the social workers report and discuss their caseloads based on the three dimensions of analysis, diagnosis, and treatment; subsequently, two supervisors offer their opinions and the chief supervisor formulates conclusions. The family-counseling model has become the primary model by which the Taiwan government implements

Article

Williams, Anita Rose  

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Williams, Anita Rose ( 1891–1983 ) Anita Rose Williams was the first Black Catholic social worker in the United States and the first Black supervisor employed by a Baltimore, Maryland, agency. Born in Baltimore, she had no formal education beyond high school, although she attended sociology lectures at Johns Hopkins University. During the early 1900s, she did volunteer work in family and child welfare agencies. In 1921 she restructured the city's four Black parishes as the Bernard Atkins Organization, which promoted economic and social assistance to Catholic

Article

Probation and Parole  

Jeffrey A. Butts

attitude toward the offender. In highly visible or notorious cases, justice officials may be reluctant to use community supervision even if the probability of re-arrest appears to be low and viable treatment alternatives exist. Assessment The use of community-based supervision offers an effective balance between protecting the public and controlling or rehabilitating individual offenders. Without access to a full range of community-based supervision options, the justice system would be able to use only incarceration for convicted offenders and adjudicated delinquents

Article

Licensing  

Mary C. Nienow, Emi Sogabe, and Amanda Duffy Randall

providers or programs. Supervision Supervision is a structured, regulated professional relationship involving the act of overseeing, directing, instructing, and evaluating social work practice. Supervision for the purpose of qualifying for licensure is one of the final stages a candidate must pass to qualify for a license. Most regulatory boards have specific requirements for supervision, especially for clinical supervision—number of hours, qualifications of the supervisor, individual versus group supervision limits and provisions for supervision by alternate (non-social

Article

Barton, Clarissa (Clara) Harlowe  

Jean K. Quam

Lincoln , she supervised a systematic postwar search for missing prisoners. In 1870 Barton worked at the front with the German Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War and was awarded the Iron Cross. Returning to the United States, she organized the American National Committee of the Red Cross (later the American National Red Cross) and became its president. In 1884 , as U.S. delegate to the Red Cross Conference in Geneva, she introduced the “American Amendment,” ensuring that the Red Cross would provide relief in peacetime as well as in war. She supervised relief work

Article

Schwartz, William  

Maryann Syers

in improving the standards of practice, supervision, and teaching and contributed to the theory and practice of group social work. Born and raised in New York City, Schwartz was active in youth group work throughout his early career. After graduating from Brooklyn College in 1939 , Schwartz served as youth director at the Young Men's Hebrew Association ( YMHA ) Community Center in Lynn, Massachusetts ( 1943–1944 ); director of activities for the Jewish Community Center in Bridgeport, Connecticut ( 1944–1945 ); and supervisor of the senior division of Bronx House.

Article

Liao, Rong-li  

Wan-I Lin

taught courses in introduction to social work, social casework, psychiatric social work, medical social work, and social work supervision for twenty-six years. During his years teaching, Liao was a prolific writer. He published many inspiring textbooks, including Dynamic Social Work ( 1973 ), Dynamic Casework ( 1977 ), Medical Social Work ( 1991 ), Social Work Management ( 1991 ), Psychiatric Social Work ( 1993 ), Social Work Supervision ( 1993 ), and Mental Health ( 1993 ). He was one of the most important proponents for adoption of psychosocial therapy

Article

Organizational Learning  

Yekutiel Sabah and Patricia Cook-Craig

promote learning ( Orthner et al., 2006 ). In social work, supervision is probably the most common learning mechanism. Supervision is the mechanism through which cases are discussed and professional problems are explored. As Austin and Hopkins ( 2004 ) highlight, the changing nature of supervision in human services increasingly has placed greater emphasis on middle management (supervisors of frontline staff) to engage in transformational leadership. This paves the way for collaborative models of supervision that promote learning. As an activity whose inherent nature

Article

Human Resource Management  

Michàlle E. Mor Barak and Dnika J. Travis

The relationship between supervision and employee development as well as organizational effectiveness helps to jointly optimize worker and client outcomes. Research conducted by Mor Barak and colleagues ( 2006 ) underscored the importance of supervision to worker and organizational outcomes. In a meta-analysis of the impact of supervision in child welfare, social work, and mental health settings, three distinct dimensions of supervision emerged: 1. Emotional and social support refer to employee perceptions of a supervisor’s ability to provide support

Article

Marin, Rosa C.  

Victor L. Garcia Toro

science degree in 1944 and a doctorate in social work in 1953 , both from the University of Pittsburgh. She worked with the Puerto Rico Emergency Relief Administration from 1933 to 1940 as “town head,” junior social worker, director, social supervisor, and chief researcher. From 1940 to 1944 she worked as supervisor of special projects and was chief of scientific research and statistics at the Health Department. From 1944 to 1974 she worked as professor, director of the research unit, and director of the School of Social Work of the University of Puerto Rico

Article

Daniel, Margaret  

Sadye L. M. Logan

public welfare in New York, New Mexico, and Missouri. In 1942 Daniel earned a Master of Social Work from the New York School of Social Work, which was formally renamed the Columbia University School of Social Work in 1963. After receiving her degree, she joined the Red Cross as a Supervisor of Social Services in armed services hospitals in China, Burma, and India during World War II. After the war, Daniel returned to her home state of Missouri as Chief Area Social Worker with the Veterans’ Administration (VA) in St. Louis. Beginning in 1946 as a social work consultant

Article

Kadushin, Alfred  

Naomi Farber

remains through his exceptional work as scholar, teacher, and advocate for the increased rigorous professionalization of social work. Through his large corpus of published scholarship, Kadushin contributed to the development of professional practice and knowledge in the areas of supervision, interviewing, and, perhaps most significantly, child welfare. In addition to scores of journal articles and published lectures, Kadushin’s six books, translated into several languages, have informed both direct practice and policy. The conceptual framework of his book, Child Welfare

Article

Home Visits and Family Engagement  

Barbara Wasik and Donna Bryant

learned previously. Supervision Supervision can further a home visitor’s skills, provide support, and enhance accountability. In a national U.S. survey of home visiting programs conducted in the late 1980s, information was gathered on whether and how often supervision was provided as well as the kinds of supervision ( Wasik & Roberts, 1994 ). The results showed few programs were providing systematic, regularly scheduled supervision. Some provided no supervision; others provided very infrequent supervision. Since that time, the importance of supervision for home visitors

Article

Garrett, Annette Marie  

Maryann Syers

believed that students should have a wide range of firsthand field experience. Out of just such an experience, working with a troubled child in foster placement, she wrote Casework Treatment of a Child ( 1942 ). Her contributions to social work education include Learning through Supervision ( 1954 ). Garrett's influential book, Interviewing, Its Principles and Methods ( 1942 ), was translated into 12 languages, and her Counseling Methods for Personnel Workers ( 1945 ) helped to extend the use of casework principles to the new field of industrial counseling.

Article

Howe, Samuel Gridley  

Larraine M. Edwards

Perkins Institute), which became internationally known under his leadership. In addition to his pioneering educational efforts for blind, deaf, and retarded people, Howe supported reform for mentally ill people, prisoners, and juvenile offenders. He encouraged investigation and supervision of state charitable and correctional systems. As a result the Massachusetts State Board of Charities was established in 1863. Under Howe's 10-year term as chairperson of the board, conditions in state institutions were studied and reforms were initiated to improve the quality of

Article

Lodge, Richard  

Maryann Syers

tor, Richard Lodge was a strong advocate for the essential role of theory in social work. Born in Ohio, Lodge graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1943. He received his MSW from the University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work in 1950 and became a worker, supervisor, and administrator of group work agencies. In 1955 he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, receiving his DSW in 1958. In 1966 he was appointed dean of the School of Social Work at Virginia Commonwealth University, and in 1972 he became

Article

Rapoport, Lydia  

Maryann Syers

crisis intervention and short-term therapy. Rapoport also served as the first United Nations interregional family welfare and family planning advisor in the Middle East. Rapoport wrote numerous articles and two books, Consultation in Social Work Practice ( 1963 ) and The Role of Supervision in Professional Education ( 1963 ). See also Creativity in Social Work: Selected Writings of Lydia Rapoport (1975), edited by Sanford N. Katz.

Article

Switzer, Mary Elizabeth  

Larraine M. Edwards

funded services to those in need. Born in Newton, Massachusetts, she graduated from Radcliffe College in 1921. Her federal career began as an assistant secretary with the Minimum Wage Board in Washington, DC. In 1934 she worked with the assistant secretary of the treasury, who supervised the U.S. Public Health Service. Here Switzer developed a concern for the delivery of health, medical, and social services and served in several administrative positions over a 16-year period. In 1950 she was named director of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation ( OVR ) in