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date: 29 November 2022

Ecological Frameworklocked

Ecological Frameworklocked

  • Alex Gitterman, Alex GittermanUniversity of Connecticut
  • Carel B. GermainCarel B. GermainUniversity of Connecticut
  •  and Carolyn KnightCarolyn KnightUniversity of Maryland Baltimore


Ecological concepts and principles enable social workers to keep a simultaneous focus on people and their environments and their reciprocal relationships, not only in direct practice with individuals, families and groups, but also in influencing organizations and communities and in policy practice. Ecological concepts emphasize the reciprocity of person:environment exchanges, in which each shapes and influences the other over time. Ecological concepts are reviewed.


  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Human Behavior
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Culture

Updated in this version

Bibliography expanded and updated to reflect recent research.

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