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date: 29 November 2022



  • Julia H. LittellJulia H. LittellGraduate School of Social Work and Social Research, Bryn Mawr College


Meta-analysis is widely used in the social, behavioral, and medical sciences to combine results of multiple studies and produce relevant information for clinical practice and social policy. It is most often used to synthesize quantitative data on treatment effects, but it has many potential applications. Meta-analysis includes a set of techniques for quantitative data synthesis that can (and should) be performed in the context of systematic efforts to minimize bias at each step in the research review process (see Systematic Reviews). Without careful efforts to eliminate bias, meta-analysis can lead to wrong conclusions.


  • Research and Evidence-Based Practice

Updated in this version

Updated and expanded to cover recent advances in the field. Further Reading expanded.

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