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date: 29 November 2022

School Violencelocked

School Violencelocked

  • Ron Avi Astor, Ron Avi AstorUniversity of Southern California
  • Rami BenbenishtyRami BenbenishtyBar Ilan University, Israel
  •  and Joey Nuñez EstradaJoey Nuñez EstradaSan Diego State University


Research suggests that school violence victims may experience physical harm; psychological trauma, such as anxiety, depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, poor academic outcomes, low school attendance, suicidal ideation; and, in rare cases, extreme outbursts of lethal aggression. One of the most common definitions had emphasized school bullying, defined by most researchers as an aggressive repetitive behavior emanating from a perpetrator who is stronger than the victim. Currently there is a fairly strong consensus in academia that the term “school violence” includes a wide range of intentional behaviors that aim to physically and emotionally harm students, staff, and property, on or around school grounds. These acts vary in severity and frequency, and include behaviors such as social isolation, threats, and intimidation (including through electronic communications), school fights, possession and use of weapons, property theft and vandalism, sexual harassment and assault, abuse from school staff, gang violence, and hate crimes.


  • Human Behavior
  • Populations and Practice Settings

Updated in this version

Section ‘Exemplars of Demographics and Victimization Trends’ updated. Bibliography expanded and updated.

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