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date: 19 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Infancy and young childhood is characterized by rapid cognitive, emotional, and physical development. Each year is marked by specific developmental tasks. Infants need positive parenting, a safe environment, and attention to their basic physical needs. A strong bond with caregivers is also necessary, as this lays the foundation for trust, allowing infants to explore their world. Many of the risk factors, such as prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs, malnutrition, and abuse and neglect, can be remedied. Interventions such as home visiting, family leave, and nutrition programs are inexpensive and effective, and should receive more attention from social work.

Keywords: infancy, young children, prenatal risk factors, attachment, low birth weight, early intervention, infant mortality, environmental risk factors

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