- Ian Archibald Richmond
- and John Patterson
ExtractAventine, the southernmost hill of Rome, overlooking the Tiber and separated from the other hills by the Murcia valley, had legendary associations with *Remus. Temples here included those dedicated to *Diana, patroness of a Latin League, and to Juno Regina following her *evocatio from *Veii (392 bce). Until ce 49 the hill was outside the *pomerium, which may explain why ‘foreign’ deities were established here. The temple of *Ceres, Liber (see liber pater), and Libera (493 bce) was headquarters of the plebeian aediles; the hill itself was *ager publicus given to the plebs for settlement in 456 bce, and it remained a cosmopolitan centre of popular politics under the late republic. C. *Sempronius Gracchus was besieged here in 121 bce. Under the empire, however, it became principally a centre of élite housing. To the south-west lay the Emporium and *Monte Testaccio, a hill 36 m.
- Roman History and Historiography